Cancer 'grows best while you're sleeping', 洋娃娃能让五岁小女孩“想要更苗条的身材”

Cancer ‘grows best while you’re SLEEPING’: Scientists warn tumours ‘awakenduring the night

  • Cancer is deadliest when cells break away into the blood to form another mass
  • Swiss academics found this is most likely to occur when people are asleep
  • Doctors may be better able to diagnose patients if they take samples at night
  • Cancer may find it easiest to spread around the body when patients are sleeping, 研究表明.

    Tumours are deadliest if they have metastasised, when malignant cells break away from where they first formed to create another mass.

    到现在, scientists had assumed the killer process — which often renders cancers incurable — occurred continuously throughout the day.

    But new evidence shows it mainly occurs during the night. Swiss academics believe tumours ‘awakenwhen patients are asleep.

    Heightened levels of melatonin, the same hormone which determines our sleeping patterns, are thought to be to blame.

    Experts believe the findings, specifically on breast cancer, could be true across other tumour types.

    It could mean doctors are better able to diagnose patients and even treat them if they take samples at night.

    一些 56,000 more women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year in the UK, 几乎 290,000 new cases found in the US annually.

    周围 90 per cent of women survive at least five years if the disease hasn’t spread around the body. But survival rates plummet to just 29 per cent for women whose cancer has mestastasised.

    Tumours are deadliest if they have metastasised, when malignant cells break away from where they first formed to create another mass. 他们在现实世界中未经测试: More cells break off tumours while asleep (对) to form another mass than when people are awake (剩下)

    Tumours are deadliest if they have metastasised, when malignant cells break away from where they first formed to create another mass. 他们在现实世界中未经测试: More cells break off tumours while asleep (对) to form another mass than when people are awake (剩下)

    新研究, led by experts at ETH Zurich, was published in the leading scientific journal 自然.

    Researchers sought to investigate how levels of circulating tumour cells — the ones responsible for metastasis — differ through the day.

    第一, they took blood samples from 30 women with breast cancer at 4am and 10am.

    They found there were nearly four times as many cells in samples from 4am — when participants would have been asleep — as at 10am.

    A higher prevalence of the cells doesn’t necessarily lead to a greater chance of the cancer spreading around the body, 然而. Most breakaways die in the blood. Only a handful manage to settle elsewhere in the body.

    Professor Nicola Aceto and colleagues then looked at how the cells affected mice to see if those taken at night were more likely to cause tumours.

    Samples were taken from mice with breast cancer when they were asleep and when they were awake.

    Healthy mice were then given injections of both types of cell, to see if they provoked cancer in their bodies.

    Samples taken from sleeping mice were significantly more likely to result in a tumour in healthy mice, results showed.

    Researchers said the results suggested medics should try taking blood samples at night or in the early morning to better spot when a tumour start to mestastasise.

    Professor Aceto, a molecular oncologist, 说过: ‘When the affected person is asleep, the tumour awakens.

    ‘在我们看来, these findings may indicate the need for healthcare professionals to systematically record the time at which they perform biopsies.

    ‘It may help to make the data truly comparable.

    Independent experts also claimed the research suggests current treatments aimed at destroying cancer cells, like chemotherapy, could be more effective at night or in the early morning.

    Writing in the same journal, Professor Sunitha Nagrath, a chemical engineer at the University of Michigan, 说过: ‘The time-dependent nature of [circulating tumour cells] dynamics might transform how doctors assess and treat patients.

    ‘The data pointing to [circulating tumour cells] proliferation and release during the rest phase suggest that doctors might need to become more conscious of when to administer specific treatments.

    乳腺癌是世界上最常见的癌症之一,每年影响超过200万名女性

    乳腺癌是世界上最常见的癌症之一. 在英国,每年有不止一个 55,000 新案件, 这种疾病夺走了生命 11,500 女人. 在美国, 它罢工 266,000 每年杀人 40,000. 但是是什么原因导致的,以及如何治疗?

    什么是乳腺癌?

    乳腺癌是由癌细胞产生的,癌细胞在其中一个乳房的导管或小叶的内膜中形成.

    当乳腺癌扩散到周围的乳腺组织中时,称为“浸润性’ 乳腺癌. 有些人被诊断为“原位癌”, 没有癌细胞长出导管或小叶的地方.

    多数病例发生于≥1岁的女性 50 但是年轻女性有时会受到影响. 乳腺癌可在男性中发展,尽管这种情况很少见.

    分期意味着癌症的大小以及它是否已经扩散. 阶段 1 是最早的阶段 4 意味着癌症已经扩散到身体的另一部分.

    癌细胞从低到高分级, 这意味着增长缓慢, 高, 增长迅速. 初次治疗后,高级别癌症更有可能复发.

    导致乳腺癌的原因?

    癌性肿瘤始于一个异常细胞. 细胞癌变的确切原因尚不清楚. 人们认为某些东西会破坏或改变细胞中的某些基因. 这会使细胞异常并“失去控制”.

    尽管乳腺癌可以毫无原因地发展, 有些危险因素会增加患乳腺癌的机会, 如遗传学.

    乳腺癌有哪些症状?

    通常的第一症状是乳房无痛性肿块, 尽管大多数乳房肿块都没有癌变并且是充满液体的囊肿, 良性的.

    乳腺癌通常扩散到的第一处是腋下的淋巴结. 如果发生这种情况,您的腋窝会肿胀或肿块.

    乳腺癌如何诊断?

    • 初步评估: 医生检查乳房和腋窝. 他们可能会做乳房X线检查等检查, 乳腺组织的特殊X射线,可以指示发生肿瘤的可能性.
    • 活检: 活检是指从身体的一部分取出一小块组织样本. 然后在显微镜下检查样品以寻找异常细胞. 样本可以确认或排除癌症.

    如果您确认患有乳腺癌, 可能需要进一步测试以评估其是否扩散. 例如, 验血, 肝脏或胸部X线超声检查.

    乳腺癌如何治疗?

    可以考虑的治疗选择包括手术, 化学疗法, 放射疗法和激素治疗. 通常将两种或更多种治疗方法结合使用.

    • 外科手术: 保乳手术或受累乳房的切除取决于肿瘤的大小.
    • 放射疗法: 使用聚焦于癌组织的高能射线束的治疗方法. 这杀死癌细胞, 或阻止癌细胞繁殖. 它主要用于除外科手术.
    • 化学疗法: 通过使用杀死癌细胞的抗癌药物治疗癌症, 或阻止他们繁殖
    • 激素治疗: 某些类型的乳腺癌会受到“女性”的影响’ 激素雌激素, 可以刺激癌细胞分裂和繁殖. 降低这些激素水平的疗法, 或阻止他们工作, 通常用于乳腺癌患者.

    治疗有多成功?

    当癌症仍然很小时,那些被诊断出的人的前景最好, 并没有传播. 早期通过外科手术切除肿瘤可能会带来良好的治愈机会.

    常规X线乳腺摄影给年龄在20岁以下的妇女。 50 和 70 意味着在早期阶段会诊断和治疗更多的乳腺癌.

    欲了解更多信息,请访问breastcancercare.org.uk, breastcancernow.org或www.cancerhelp.org.uk

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