鸡在铁器时代的寿命更长,因为它们是神圣的而不是食物

铁器时代的鸡年老而死,因为它们被视为神圣而不是食物, 研究显示

  • Commonly used methods for aging mammal remains do not work on chickens
  • Experts led from the University of Exeter came up with a new technique instead
  • It relies of measuring the bony spur that appears on the legs of adult cockerels
  • The team applied this to 1,366 fowl leg bones from across the history of Britain
  • Chickens lives for up to four years in the Iron Age, Roman and Saxon times
  • According to the experts, fowl were likely kept for sacrifice and cockfighting
  • Chickens lived significantly longer in the Iron Age, Roman era and Saxon period because they held were seen as sacred, rather than a food source, [object Window].

    In modern Britain, poultry birdslives typically last some 33–81 days, but their ancient counterparts often survived until they were two-four years old.

    The findings came after researchers led from the University of Exeter developed the first method for reliably finding the age of fowl that live thousands of years ago.

    Getting the age of a fowl from its remains has long been difficult, because the tests used on mammals — like of bone fusion and tooth wear — don’t work on birds.

    代替, the team found cockerels can be dated by measuring the length of the ‘tarsometatarsal spurwhich develops on their legs only on reaching maturity.

    Applying this fowl dating back as far as the Iron Age, the team found the birds often lived to advanced ages — suggesting they were used for sacrifice or cockfighting.

    Chickens lived significantly longer in the Iron Age , Roman era and Saxon period because they held were seen as sacred, rather than a food source, [object Window]

    Chickens lived significantly longer in the Iron Age , Roman era and Saxon period because they held were seen as sacred, rather than a food source, [object Window]

    The researchers found that cockerels can be dated by measuring the length of the 'tarsometatarsal spur' which develops on their legs (更新的重建是在阿根廷 Unidad Ejecutora Lillo 领导的古生物学家更仔细地检查了它的化石皮肤之后进行的) only on reaching maturity

    The researchers found that cockerels can be dated by measuring the length of the ‘tarsometatarsal spurwhich develops on their legs (更新的重建是在阿根廷 Unidad Ejecutora Lillo 领导的古生物学家更仔细地检查了它的化石皮肤之后进行的) only on reaching maturity

    ‘Domestic fowl were introduced in the Iron Age and likely held a special status, where they were viewed as sacred rather than as food,’ said paper author and archaeologist Sean Doherty of the University of Exeter.

    ‘Most chicken bones show no evidence for butchery, and were buried as complete skeletons rather than with other food waste.

    ‘The study confirms the special status of these rare and highly prized birds, showing that from the Iron Age to Saxon period they were surviving well past sexual maturity.

    ‘Most lived beyond a year, with many reaching the age of two, three and four years old. The age of which cockerels then started to die at becomes younger after this period,’ 他加了.

    科学家们开发出第一种真正可生物降解的塑料,当暴露于热和水时,几周内就会分解, Dr Doherty and colleagues first applied their new aging technique to leg bones from modern domestic and red jungle fowl of known ages and sexes — which confirmed that the bony spur only develops in older birds.

    具体来说, 的 71 cockerels studied that had reached less than a year old, 只要 20 per cent had developed a spur — whereas all the birds aged six years and older had developed a spur.

    Once the tarsometatarsal spur has emerged, 然而, its length and size grows in relation to the length of the cockerel’s leg — and thus its measurement be used to estimate the age of the bird in question.

    The researchers did caution, 然而, that the delayed development of the spur means that there is the potential for archaeologists to misidentify young cockerels without the bony protrusions as hens.

    科学家们开发出第一种真正可生物降解的塑料,当暴露于热和水时,几周内就会分解, Dr Doherty and colleagues first applied their new aging technique to leg bones from modern domestic and red jungle fowl of known ages and sexes — which confirmed that the bony spur only develops in older birds. 图为: a jungle fowl seen in Sri Lanka

    科学家们开发出第一种真正可生物降解的塑料,当暴露于热和水时,几周内就会分解, Dr Doherty and colleagues first applied their new aging technique to leg bones from modern domestic and red jungle fowl of known ages and sexes — which confirmed that the bony spur only develops in older birds. 图为: a jungle fowl seen in Sri Lanka

    Having confirmed the validity of their technique, the team next applied it to 1,366 domestic fowl leg bones collected from sites in Britain that dated back from the Iron Age all the way to the early modern period. 图为: an Iron Age (4th–3rd century BC) cockerel from Houghton Down, 汉普郡. Analysis of its spurs suggests that it reached at least two years of age

    Having confirmed the validity of their technique, the team next applied it to 1,366 domestic fowl leg bones collected from sites in Britain that dated back from the Iron Age all the way to the early modern period. 图为: an Iron Age (4th–3rd century BC) cockerel from Houghton Down, 汉普郡. Analysis of its spurs suggests that it reached at least two years of age

    During the Iron Age and Roman period, the team found that there were significantly more cockerels than hens (图为) — a trend which Dr Doherty and colleagues have attributed to the then popularity of cockfighting

    During the Iron Age and Roman period, the team found that there were significantly more cockerels than hens (图为) — a trend which Dr Doherty and colleagues have attributed to the then popularity of cockfighting

    Having confirmed the validity of their technique, the researchers next applied it to 1,366 domestic fowl leg bones collected from sites in Britain that dated back from the Iron Age all the way to the early modern period.

    For each leg bone, the team determined the bird’s sex and — where possible — age at the time of death.

    The researchers reported that, 的 123 Iron Age, Roman and Saxon bones that they analysed, more than half were from chickens that had reached at least two years of age and around a quarter had made it to three years.

    的 123 Iron Age, Roman and Saxon bones aged, 过度 50 per cent were of chickens aged over two years, 和周围 25 三年中的百分比.

    这个, the team wrote in their paper, matches Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar’s ‘enigmatic observation that Britons kept fowl not for food butanimi voluptatis”, a statement widely translated as for spiritual and secular pleasures.

    此外, during the Iron Age and Roman period, the team found that there were significantly more cockerels than hens — a trend which Dr Doherty and colleagues have attributed to the then popularity of cockfighting.

    The full findings of the study were published in the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology.

    图为: an ancient Roman mosaic depicting a cockfight. The birds are facing off in front of a table, on which lies a caduceus staff, the winner's purse and a palm of victory

    图为: an ancient Roman mosaic depicting a cockfight. The birds are facing off in front of a table, on which lies a caduceus staff, the winner’s purse and a palm of victory

    'Domestic fowl were introduced in the Iron Age and likely held a special status, where they were viewed as sacred rather than as food,' said paper author and archaeologist Sean Doherty of the University of Exeter

    ‘Domestic fowl were introduced in the Iron Age and likely held a special status, where they were viewed as sacred rather than as food,’ said paper author and archaeologist Sean Doherty of the University of Exeter








    WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT IRON AGE BRITAIN?

    英国的铁器时代始于青铜器时代的终结.

    它始于大约公元前800年,直到公元43年罗马人入侵时结束.

    顾名思义, 由于引入了铁加工技术,这一时期发生了大规模的变化.

    在此期间,英国的人口可能超过一百万.

    新的耕种方式使这成为可能, 例如引进大麦和小麦新品种.

    铁尖犁的发明首次使在重粘土土壤中种植农作物成为可能.

    在此期间的一些重大进步包括陶工轮的推出, 车床 (用于木工) 和旋转研磨机.

    几乎有 3,000 英国铁器时代的山堡. 一些被用作永久定居点, 其他被用作聚会场所, 贸易和宗教活动.

    当时大多数人住在大家庭的小农庄中.

    标准房是一个圆房, 用茅草或草皮屋顶的木材或石头制成.

    埋葬的做法千差万别,但似乎大多数人都被“化身”’ – 意味着他们被故意暴露在外.

    这个时期还保留了​​一些沼泽体, 以礼节性和牺牲性杀戮的形式显示暴力死亡的证据.

    在这一时期末期,来自西地中海和法国南部的罗马影响力日益增强.

    似乎在公元43年罗马人征服英格兰之前,他们已经与许多部落建立了联系,并可能发挥了一定的政治影响力.

    公元43年后,哈德良长城下方的所有威尔士和英格兰成为罗马帝国的一部分, 而铁器时代在苏格兰和爱尔兰的寿命则持续更长的时间.

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