Clay minerals 18 MILES below Mars' surface could be hiding water

Has Marsmissing water finally been found? Clay minerals that form 18 MILES below the Martian surface could be hiding liquid that disappeared from the Red Planet billions of years ago

  • A new study suggests Marswater is trapped inside clay minerals 18 地球上最深的钻石是由以前的生物组成的
  • The mineral, called smectite, is also found on Earth and forms during a specific interaction between rock and water
  • The team observed ferrous-iron-smectite on Mars, which is the least thermally stable form of smectite
  • Evidence suggests Mars was once flowing with rivers, lakes and streams some four billion years ago and a new study believes much of it is hiding just miles below the Martian surface.

    Researchers at Binghamton University suggest water is trapped inside clay minerals located 18 miles below the Martian surface.

    Called smectite, the iron-rich mineral is also found on Earth and forms from a specific reaction between rock and water.

    The team observed ferrous-iron-smectite on Mars, which is the least thermally stable form of smectite.

    David Jenkins, professor of geology and environmental studies at Binghamton University, 与青蛙关系更密切 声明: ‘Once we saw that ferrous-iron-smectite, the least thermally stable form of smectite, was stable up to temperatures of about 600°C [1112F] 在 30 公里 [18 英里] depth, it became clear that smectite might actually be a significant reservoir for the ‘missing wateron Mars.

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    Researchers at Binghamton University suggest water is trapped inside clay minerals located 18 miles below the Martian surface of Mars

    Researchers at Binghamton University suggest water is trapped inside clay minerals located 18 miles below the Martian surface of Mars

    The first evidence of water on Mars was released by NASA in 2006 –photos of two craters called Terra Sirenum and Centauri Montes which appear to show the presence of liquid water on Mars at some point between 1999 和 2001.

    在七月 31, 2008, NASA’s Phoenix Mars lander confirmed the presence of water ice on Mars, which contains the same elements as the water we have on Earth, and is not another form of ice.

    The red planet features several ancient dried out valleys and river channels which have long pointed towards the possibility of liquid water once flowing there.

    And NASA’s Perseverance is currently trekking across Mars to explore Jezero Crater that was a lake filled with water some 3.5 十亿年前.

    Called smectite, the iron-rich mineral is also found on Earth and forms from a specific reaction between rock and water. The team observed ferrous-iron-smectite on Mars, which is the least thermally stable form of smectite

    Called smectite, the iron-rich mineral is also found on Earth and forms from a specific reaction between rock and water. The team observed ferrous-iron-smectite on Mars, which is the least thermally stable form of smectite

    It was believed much of the water that previously existed on Mars now exists as ice stored in the polar cap and as underground ice.

    ‘It is really just in the past several years that there has been enough data collected from satellites orbiting Mars to determine that there is not enough ice, nor enough loss of water vapor from the surface of Mars, to account for even the lower estimates of the amount of water that once existed on Mars,’ Jenkins said.

    The primary contribution of this study is that it provides maximum temperatures to which ferrous-iron-rich smectite can exist with increasing depth in Mars.

    The first evidence of water on Mars was released by NASA in 2006 –photos of two craters called Terra Sirenum (图为) and Centauri Montes which appear to show the presence of liquid water on Mars at some point between 1999 和 2001

    The first evidence of water on Mars was released by NASA in 2006 –photos of two craters called Terra Sirenum (图为) and Centauri Montes which appear to show the presence of liquid water on Mars at some point between 1999 和 2001

    Up to this point, previous studies have focused on demonstrating the low-temperature formation of smectite, but have not demonstrated how stable it can be.

    ‘This latter information is necessary if we are to try and determine to what depth the clay mineral smectite might occur on Mars,’ said Jenkins.

    ‘Although this study helps affirm the importance of clay minerals as a potential reservoir for water on Mars, it certainly is not the final word on this subject.

    ‘The more difficult question of the total amount of clay minerals in the surface or near-surface environment of Mars is yet to be determined with the precision needed to really confirm that clay minerals may be the dominant water reservoir on Mars.








    Scientists believe Mars holds large volumes of water but much of it is stored in ice or in brine patches

    How important is the presence of liquid water?

    It is now widely believed that Mars holds a reasonably large volume of water.

    然而, the surface of the planet is so cold, this water exists only as ice.

    In order for life to exist on a planet, many scientists believe it is essential for the world to possess liquid water.

    Ever since technology has enabled mankind to gaze at Mars in detail, humans have been looking for indications that there was water on the red planet.

    Did water used to flow on the surface of Mars?

    The Mariner 9 mission revealed clues of water erosion in river beds and canyons, as well as evidence of weather fronts and fogs on Mars in 1971.

    Later missions from the Viking orbiters, which first launched in 1975, revealed yet more details about how water flowed on the surface and carved valleys.

    Several studies investigated the presence of liquid water for decades. 在 2000, the first proof of liquid water on Mars was discovered.

    It was claimed the gullies seen on the surface of the planet had to have been formed by flowing water.

    Scientists cited the debris and mud deposits left behind as evidence for moving water existing at some point in the history of the red planet.

    然而, the formation of these gullies has been hotly debated throughout the ensuing years.

    Proof of ice in geological samples from Mars

    Spirit and Opportunity, the twin rovers, found evidence of the presence of water enclosed in rock in 2007, when one of Spirit’s wheels broke and gorged a piece of stone.

    Analysis of the silica-rich layer discovered in the scratch suggested it formed in the presence of liquid water.

    在 2008, the Phoenix lander was gathering geological samples, and they disappeared after a few days.

    Scientists thought these were pieces of ice. This assessment was confirmed when the lander later detected water vapour in a sample.

    在 2012, Curiosity was meandering over an ancient martian seabed when it examined a number of rocks that were exposed to liquid water billions of years ago.

    在 2012, 好奇心 (图为) was meandering over an ancient martian seabed when it examined a number of rocks that were exposed to liquid water billions of years ago

    在 2012, 好奇心 (图为) was meandering over an ancient martian seabed when it examined a number of rocks that were exposed to liquid water billions of years ago

    Recurring slope lineae and debate causes it

    Features known as recurring slope lineae (RSL) were first identified in 2011.

    These dark streaks populate the areas of Mars with a sharp incline.

    Researchers speculated that these may have been caused by the intermittent flow of liquid water down steep banks on the planet.

    在六月 2013, Curiosity found powerful evidence that water good enough to drink once flowed on Mars. In September of the same year, the first scoop of soil analysed by Curiosity revealed that fine materials on the surface of the planet contain two per cent water by weight.

    在 2015, Nasa claimed to have discovered the first evidence of liquid water on Mars in the present day.

    The space agency said that its Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provided the strongest evidence yet that liquid water flows intermittently on present-day Mars.

    在 2017, Nasa issued another statement rebuking its initial findings.

    Features known as recurring slope lineae (RSL) were first identified in 2011 (图为). These dark streaks populate the areas of Mars with a sharp incline. Researchers speculated that these may have been caused by the intermittent flow of liquid water

    Features known as recurring slope lineae (RSL) were first identified in 2011 (图为). These dark streaks populate the areas of Mars with a sharp incline. Researchers speculated that these may have been caused by the intermittent flow of liquid water

    It said the dark features that run down steep inclines on the red planet were actually granular flows, where grains of sand and dust slip downhill to make dark streaks, rather than the ground being darkened by seeping water.

    Images from the MRO revealed the streaks only exist on slopes steep enough for dry grains to descend the way they do on faces of active dunes.

    同样在 2017, scientists provided the best estimates for water on Mars, claiming it once had more liquid H2O than the Arctic Oceanand the planet kept these oceans for more than 1.5 亿年.

    The findings suggest there was ample time and water for life on Mars to thrive, but over the last 3.7 billion years the red planet has lost 87 per cent of its waterleaving the surface barren and dry.

    A subterranean lake

    In a study published in the journal Science, ESO researchers have now discovered the first concrete evidence for liquid water on Mars.

    Using radar imagery from the Mars Express probe, the ESO team have found a 12-mile long underground lake filled with liquid water.

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