Climate change 'could DEVASTATE the world's largest economic powers'

Climate change could DEVASTATE the world’s largest economic powers including the UK, US and Germany by 2050 if no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, report warns

  • Climate change could devastate the world’s largest economic powers by 2050
  • That’s the warning in a report by Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change
  • 英国, US and Germany among those affected if greenhouse gases are not reduced
  • The report has been released on the eve of COP26 climate change conference
  • Climate change could devastate the world’s largest economic powers by 2050 if no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, a new report has warned.

    The research by the Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC) has been released on the eve of the COP26 气候变化 conference in 格拉斯哥, which begins on Sunday.

    It warns that the UK, US and Germany are among the countries that will be affected, 也 加拿大, 法国, 巴西, 墨西哥, 日本, China and Russia.

    Climate change could devastate the world's largest economic powers by 2050 if no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, a new report has warned (库存图片)

    Climate change could devastate the world’s largest economic powers by 2050 if no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, a new report has warned (库存图片)

    PARIS AGREEMENT: ACCORD TO LIMIT TEMPERATURE RISES

    巴黎协定, 第一次登录 2015, 是控制和限制气候变化的国际协议.

    希望将全球平均气温升幅控制在2°C以内 (3.6°F) ‘并努力将温度升高限制在 1.5°C (2.7°F)’.

    It seems the more ambitious goal of restricting global warming to 1.5°C (2.7°F) may be more important than ever, according to previous research which claims 25 per cent of the world could see a significant increase in drier conditions.

    The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has four main goals with regards to reducing emissions:

    1) A long-term goal of keeping the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels

    2) To aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C, since this would significantly reduce risks and the impacts of climate change

    3) Governments agreed on the need for global emissions to peak as soon as possible, recognising that this will take longer for developing countries

    4) To undertake rapid reductions thereafter in accordance with the best available science

    资源: European Commission

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    ‘From droughts, heatwaves and sea level rise, to dwindling food supplies and threats to tourism — these findings show how severely climate change will hit the world’s biggest economies, unless we act now,’ said Donatella Spano, from the Italian research centre CMCC.

    The report estimated that G20 countries will lose 4 per cent of their total economic output by 2050 和 8 百分之 2100 if emissions aren’t slashed dramatically.

    G20 countries are responsible for around 80 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

    They all signed the Paris Agreement in 2015, which set the goal of keeping the global temperature rise below 2°C (3.6°F) and ideally holding it to 1.5°C (2.7°F).

    The report found that the impacts of global warming, including extreme heat and rising sea levels, are already causing death and damage to the world’s leading economies.

    France and Indonesia could lose one-fifth or more of their fishing catch because of warmer ocean temperatures, while damage to coastal infrastructure caused by sea level rises may cost Japan $468 十亿 (£339 billion) and South Africa $945 十亿 (£684 billion) 通过 2050, according to estimates by researchers.

    They also warn that if global warming continues unabated, Europe will have 90,000 deaths from extreme heat each year by the end of this century, 从 2,700 currently.

    In the northern US, the Zika virus — which has previously only being transmitted locally in Florida and Texas — could threaten 83 per cent of the country’s population by 2050 if emissions remain high and temperatures keep rising, the report suggests.

    多于 92 per cent of people in the US could also be at risk from dengue fever.

    The CMCC, which works with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, released the report just days before the start of the United Nationsclimate change summit in Scotland.

    ‘As scientists, we know that only rapid action to tackle emissions and adapt to climate change will limit the severe impacts of climate change,’ said Spano.

    ‘At the upcoming summit, we invite G20 governments to listen to the science and put the world on a path to a better, fairer and more stable future.

    The release of the report comes 24 hours after another paper by the UN Environment Programme warned that current national commitments to cut greenhouse gas emissions put Earth on track for a ‘catastrophic’ 2.7摄氏 (4.8°F) temperature rise this century.

    This graphic shows how greenhouse gas emissions have increased between 1900 和 2020

    This graphic shows how greenhouse gas emissions have increased between 1900 和 2020

    While China industrialised decades later than western nations, its growth in recent yearslargely fuelled by coalhas been so ferocious that it has eclipsed almost all other nations. It is not the world’s largest emitter by a wide margin (以上)

    Scientists who compiled the Emissions Gap report said carbon-cutting plans submitted by countries ahead of COP26 are nowhere near enough to keep the 1.5°C temperature threshold within sight.

    When added together, the plans slash greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 by around 7.5 per cent compared to the previous pledges made five years ago.

    然而, that is way off the 55 per cent of cuts needed by the same date to ensure the 1.5°C increase remains a realistic target, 专家说.

    The current pledges would instead see the world warm by 2.7°C this century, a revelation that is ‘another thundering wake-up call’, according to the UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres.








    ‘The emissions gap is the result of a leadership gap,’ he said at the launch of the study.

    ‘But leaders can still make this a turning point to a greener future instead of a tipping point to climate catastrophe.

    Inger Andersen, executive director of Unep, 说过: ‘To stand a chance of limiting global warming to 1.5°C, we have eight years to almost halve greenhouse gas emissions: eight years to make the plans, put in place the policies, implement them and ultimately deliver the cuts.

    ‘The clock is ticking loudly.

    Despite the warning, there is still hope that if long-term net-zero goals — pledged by around 50 countries plus the EU — are met then this could shave 0.5°C off the temperature rise by 2100.

    It would limit the global temperature rise to 2.2°C rather than 2.7°C but would still be above the Paris Agreement target of keeping it below 2°C and ideally holding it to 1.5°C.

    显露: MailOnline 剖析温室气体对地球的影响 – 以及正在采取哪些措施来阻止空气污染

    排放量

    二氧化碳

    二氧化碳 (二氧化碳) 是全球变暖的最大贡献者之一. 气体释放到大气中后,它会留在那里, 使热量难以逸出 – 并在此过程中使地球变暖.

    它主要是从燃烧化石燃料(如煤)中释放出来的, 油和气, 以及水泥生产.

    地球大气中二氧化碳的月平均浓度, 截至 4 月 2019, 是 413 百万分之几 (百万分之一). 工业革命之前, 浓度只是 280 百万分之一.

    二氧化碳浓度在过去几年有所波动 800,000 年间 180 到 280 ppm, 但由于人类造成的污染大大加速了.

    二氧化氮

    气体二氧化氮 (二氧化氮) 来自燃烧化石燃料, 汽车尾气排放和农业中氮肥的使用.

    虽然大气中的 NO2 比 CO2 少得多, 它介于 200 和 300 捕捉热量的效率提高了数倍.

    二氧化硫

    二氧化硫 (二氧化硫) 也主要来自化石燃料燃烧, 但也可以从汽车尾气中释放出来.

    SO2能与水反应, 大气中的氧气和其他化学物质会导致酸雨.

    一氧化碳

    一氧化碳 (二氧化碳) 是一种间接的温室气体,因为它与羟基自由基反应, 移除它们. 羟基自由基会缩短二氧化碳和其他温室气体的寿命.

    微粒

    什么是颗粒物?

    颗粒物是指空气中固体或液体物质的微小部分.

    有些是可见的, 比如灰尘, 而其他的肉眼是看不到的.

    金属等材料, 微塑料, 土壤和化学品可能存在于颗粒物中.

    颗粒物 (或下午) 以微米为单位描述. 报告和研究中提到的两个主要是 PM10 (少于 10 微米) 和 PM2.5 (少于 2.5 微米).

    空气污染来自燃烧化石燃料, 汽车, 水泥制造和农业

    空气污染来自燃烧化石燃料, 汽车, 水泥制造和农业

    科学家用立方米测量空气中颗粒物的比率.

    颗粒物质通过许多过程进入空气,包括燃烧化石燃料, 驾驶汽车和炼钢.

    为什么颗粒物是危险的?

    微粒是危险的,因为那些小于 10 直径微米可以深入你的肺部, 甚至进入你的血液. 城市地区的颗粒物浓度较高, 特别是在主要道路上.

    健康影响

    污染会导致什么样的健康问题?

    根据世界卫生组织, 三分之一死于中风, 肺癌和心脏病可能与空气污染有关.

    空气污染对身体的一些影响尚不清楚, 但污染可能会增加炎症,从而使动脉变窄,导致心脏病发作或中风.

    以及这个, 几乎一 10 英国的肺癌病例是由空气污染引起的.

    颗粒进入肺部并滞留在那里, 引起炎症和损伤. 以及这个, 进入体内的微粒中的某些化学物质会导致癌症.

    污染造成的死亡

    每年约有 700 万人因空气污染过早死亡. 污染会导致许多问题,包括哮喘发作, 笔画, 各种癌症和心血管问题.

    哮喘诱因

    由于多种原因,空气污染会给哮喘患者带来问题. 交通烟雾中的污染物会刺激呼吸道, 颗粒物会进入您的肺部和喉咙并使这些区域发炎.

    怀孕问题

    怀孕前接触空气污染的女性几乎 20 生出有先天缺陷的婴儿的可能性增加, 一月份建议的研究 2018.

    住在里面 3.1 英里 (5公里) 受孕前一个月在污染严重的地区,女性更容易生出有腭裂或唇裂等缺陷的婴儿, 辛辛那提大学的一项研究发现.

    细小空气颗粒每增加 0.01mg/m3, 出生缺陷上升 19 百分, 该研究补充说.

    先前的研究表明,由于女性患有炎症和“内部压力”,这会导致出生缺陷.

    正在采取哪些措施来解决空气污染问题?

    巴黎气候变化协定

    巴黎协定, 第一次登录 2015, 是控制和限制气候变化的国际协议.

    希望将全球平均气温升幅控制在2°C以内 (3.6华氏度) ‘并努力将温度升高限制在 1.5°C (2.7°F)’.

    碳中和 2050

    英国政府已宣布计划通过以下方式实现该国的碳中和 2050.

    他们计划通过种植更多树木和安装“碳捕获”来实现这一目标’ 污染源头技术.

    一些批评人士担心,政府会使用第一个选项将其碳抵消出口到其他国家.

    国际碳信用让各国继续排放碳,同时支付在其他地方种植树木的费用, 平衡他们的排放.

    没有新的汽油或柴油车辆 2040

    在 2017, 英国政府宣布将禁止销售新的汽油和柴油汽车 2040.

    然而, 气候变化委员会的议员已敦促政府将禁令提前到 2030, 因为到那时他们将有相同的范围和价格.

    巴黎协定, 第一次登录 2015, 是控制和限制气候变化的国际协议. 图为: 巴黎上空的空气污染 2019.

    巴黎协定, 第一次登录 2015, 是控制和限制气候变化的国际协议. 图为: 巴黎上空的空气污染 2019.

    挪威的电动汽车补贴

    挪威汽车车队的快速电气化主要归功于慷慨的国家补贴. 电动汽车几乎完全免除对汽油和柴油汽车征收的重税, 这使它们的价格具有竞争力.

    配备标准内燃机的大众高尔夫成本几乎 334,000 挪威克朗 (34,500 欧元, $38,600), 而它的电动表兄弟 e-Golf 的成本 326,000 克朗由于较低的税商.

    对气候变化不作为的批评

    委员会 气候变化 (CCC) 曾说有一个“令人震惊的’ 政府缺乏应对气候变化给国家带来的风险的准备.

    委员会评估 33 必须解决气候变化风险的领域——从财产的抗洪能力到对农田和供应链的影响——但在其中任何一个领域都没有取得真正的进展.

    英国尚未为升温 2°C 做好准备, 各国承诺遏制气温上升的水平, 更不用说上升 4°C, 如果全球不减少温室气体,这是可能的, 委员会说.

    它补充说,城市需要更多的绿地来阻止城市“热岛”’ 影响, 并通过吸收强降雨来防止洪水.

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