Cuts on animal bones show our ancestors hunted two million years ago

Ancient humans DID begin hunting two million years ago as cut marks on animal bones prove they killed creatures for meat rather than having to scavenge from big cats

  • University of San Diego-led experts studied animal bones from Kanjera South
  • This is a two-million-year-old archaeological site located in the west of Kenya
  • The bones — of gazelle and wildebeest — showed signs of being cut by tools
  • It had been unclear, 하나, if the prey were killed by humans or big cats
  • The marks were in places where there would have no meat if cats had eaten first
  • 이, 팀이 말했다, provides the earliest strong indication for hominin hunting
  • Our distant ancestors had begun hunting by two million years ago — rather than scavenging on the leftovers of carnivores like big cats — a study has found.

    Researchers from the University of San Diego studied animal bones from Kanjera South, an archaeological site near Lake Victoria in western Kenya.

    They found traces of butchery marks on gazelle and wildebeest bones in places where they would only been left if humans were the first to get at the carcasses.

    The remains, 팀이 말했다, therefore represent some of the oldest strong evidence for hunting among ancient humans.

    Bones with cut marks have been found that date back to around 3.4 million years ago — but it is unclear whether these marks were left by hominins or other animals.

    Our distant ancestors had begun hunting by two million years ago — rather than scavenging on the leftovers of carnivores like big cats — a study has found. 사진: examples of percussion notches on a large bovid humerus

    Our distant ancestors had begun hunting by two million years ago — rather than scavenging on the leftovers of carnivores like big cats — a study has found. 사진: examples of percussion notches on a large bovid humerus

    OLDOWAN EXPLAINED

    Oldowan (also referred to as Mode I) is the name given to ancient hominin cultures who used a characteristic style of simple stone tool.

    These tools were typically made by chipping a few flakes of one stone by means of hitting it with an other.

    Oldowan tools were in use from around 2.6–1.7 million years ago across much of Africa, 유럽, the Middle East and South Asia.

    The name is derived from the site where the first Oldowan tools were discovered back in the 1930s — the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.

    광고

    The study was carried out by zooarchaeologist and paleoanthropologist Jennifer Parkinson of the University of San Diego, 캘리포니아, 그리고 그녀의 동료.

    ‘The shift to increased meat consumption is one of the major adaptive changes in hominin dietary evolution,’ the team wrote in their paper.

    ‘Meat eating by Oldowan hominins is well evidenced at Pleistocene archaeological sites in eastern Africa by butchery marks on bones.

    하나, 그들은 계속했다, ‘the methods through which carcasses were acquired (i.e., hunting versus scavenging) and extent of their completeness (fleshed versus defleshed) is less certain.

    The animal bones from the Kanjera South site — which, two millennia ago, was open grassland — allowed the researchers a window on these distinctions.

    The bones of gazelle and wildebeest, which were common in the area, have long been known to sport butchery marks.

    하나, it had previously been unclear whether such were made on prey killed by humans, or if the carcasses had killed by other predators that had either discarded them or been scared off by our ancestors.

    In re-examining the cut marks, the team compared the ancient bones with modern bones that were either experimentally butchered by researchers or that had been consumed by modern carnivores like hyenas.

    They found that the bones of the prey animals from Kanjera South had been butchered in those places that would have most likely already have been stripped clean of flesh had the animals been killed by predators like big cats.

    이, 팀이 말했다, suggests that the ancient humans were the first to have had a crack at the meat — and most likely took down the prey themselves.

    ‘Hominins were not scavenging from felid [big cat] kills, because they were butchering places where there would not be flesh on felid kills,’ Professor Parkinson told the 새로운 과학자.

    Researchers led from the University of San Diego studied animal bones from Kanjera South, an archaeological site near Lake Victoria in western Kenya. They found traces of butchery marks on various gazelle and wildebeest bones (사진) in places where they would only been left if humans were the first to get at the carcasses

    Researchers led from the University of San Diego studied animal bones from Kanjera South, an archaeological site near Lake Victoria in western Kenya. They found traces of butchery marks on various gazelle and wildebeest bones (사진) in places where they would only been left if humans were the first to get at the carcasses

    The team compared the marks on the ancient bones (as left) with modern bones that were either consumed by modern carnivores like hyenas (오른쪽 상단), experimentally butchered by researchers or a combination of both (오른쪽 하단)

    The team compared the marks on the ancient bones (as left) with modern bones that were either consumed by modern carnivores like hyenas (오른쪽 상단), experimentally butchered by researchers or a combination of both (오른쪽 하단)

    Zooarchaeologist Geoff Smith of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology — who was not involved in the study — told New Scientist that ‘it does provide more evidence for human consumption of meat at this time.

    A few things remain unclear about the hunting activities at Kanjera South, the most obvious of which being that it is not know which hominins lived there, as no human remains have been unearthed at the site.

    ‘We have thousands of stone tools, so we know hominins were there, but they didn’t happen to die there at Kanjera South,’ Professor Parkinson said.

    하나, 그녀는 계속했다, a likely candidate is Homo habilis, whose remains have been found from other sites in the vicinity.

    Paranthropus is another hominin known from the east Africa of the time — but its big back teeth indicate that it likely mostly ate plants, although it is possible that it also had some hunting ability.

    Exactly how the hominins — whoever they were — hunted is also not known. According to Dr Smith, various strategies are conceivable, from ambushes to lobbing wooden spears.

    연구 결과 전체가 저널에 게재되었습니다. Quaternary Science Reviews.

    The researchers found that the bones of the prey animals from Kanjera South had been butchered in those places that would have most likely already have been stripped clean of flesh had the animals been killed by predators like big cats

    The researchers found that the bones of the prey animals from Kanjera South had been butchered in those places that would have most likely already have been stripped clean of flesh had the animals been killed by predators like big cats

    인간 조상이 처음 등장했을 때?

    인간 진화의 타임 라인은 수백만 년 전으로 거슬러 올라갑니다.. 전문가들은 가계도가 그렇게 될 것이라고 추정합니다.:

    55 백만년 전 – 최초의 원시 영장류 진화

    15 백만년 전 – 호 미니 대 (위대한 원숭이) 긴팔 원숭이의 조상에서 진화

    7 백만년 전 – 최초의 고릴라 진화. 나중, 침팬지와 인간의 혈통이 갈라진다

    네안데르탈 인을 재현 한 사진

    네안데르탈 인을 재현 한 사진

    5.5 백만년 전 – 아르디 피테쿠스, 초기 '초 인간’ 침팬지와 고릴라와 특성을 공유

    4 백만년 전 – 초기 인간과 같은 원숭이, Australopithecines가 나타났습니다.. 그들은 침팬지보다 크지 않은 두뇌를 가지고 있었지만 다른 인간과 비슷한 특징을 가졌습니다.

    3.9-2.9 백만년 전 – Australoipithecus afarensis는 아프리카에 살았습니다..

    2.7 백만년 전 – Paranthropus, 숲속에 살았고 씹을 수있는 커다란 턱을 가졌습니다.

    2.6 백만년 전 – 손 축이 최초의 주요 기술 혁신이 됨

    2.3 백만년 전 – 호모 하빌리스는 아프리카에 처음으로 나타났습니다.

    1.85 백만년 전 – 최초의 '현대’ 손이 나온다

    1.8 백만년 전 – 호모 에르가 스터가 화석 기록에 등장하기 시작

    800,000 여러 해 전에 – 초기 인간은 화재를 통제하고 난로를 만듭니다. 뇌 크기가 빠르게 증가합니다.

    400,000 년 ag그만큼 – 네안데르탈 인이 처음으로 나타나 유럽과 아시아 전역에 퍼지기 시작합니다.

    300,000 ...에 200,000 여러 해 전에 – 호모 사피엔스 – 현대인 – 아프리카에 나타나다

    50,000 ...에 40,000 여러 해 전에 – 현대인이 유럽에 도달

    광고








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