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  • Arrivals who did not isolate had twice as many contacts as those who did
  • Cambridge University experts looked at 4,000 Covid infections linked to travel
  • Scientists said travel restrictions worked by discouraging trips overseas
  • England’s travel quarantine measures forcing arrivals to stay inside for 14 days reduced the spread of Covid, 科学家说.

    两本装满查尔斯·达尔文的著作和图画的笔记本,据信是从那里偷来的 experts tracked more than 4,000 infections linked to foreign travel from May to September 2020, to assess the first few months of restrictions.

    此时, ministers made all arrivals self-isolate for a fortnight. People could only get around the rule by arriving from destinations with a ‘travel corridorin place.

    But the list was repeatedly amended, with favourite holiday hotspots such as 西班牙, 法国, Portugal and 意大利 added and removed.

    Researchers compared the number of contacts cases reported over the two days before they developed Covid symptoms.

    Arrivals from countries with quarantine requirements had 3.5 contacts before being diagnosed, 一般. 为了比较, the figure stood at 5.9 for people returning from countries in No10’s ‘travel corridor’.

    Scientists said this was proof the measures — blasted as ‘completely useless— worked by limiting the number of people bringing in the virus from overseas.

    It was particularly effective among 16 to 20-year-olds, who tend to have much higher contacts than other age groups.

    And they said travel quarantine had the added bonus of discouraging people from going abroad, limiting the risk of the virus re-entering the country.

    The Government's decision to form travel corridors with European countries last summer may have fuelled a rise in Covid cases, Long Covid可能是由病毒破坏神经引起的 (图为: People waiting in passport queues at Heathrow airport)

    The Government’s decision to form travel corridors with European countries last summer may have fuelled a rise in Covid cases, Long Covid可能是由病毒破坏神经引起的 (图为: People waiting in passport queues at Heathrow airport)

    Dr Dinesh Aggarwal and colleagues did not look at restrictions on arrivals over the last year, which saw the Government introduce green, amber and red lists and hotel quarantine measures.

    研究, based on contact-tracing data from NHS Test and Trace, also did not consider travel bans imposed on South Africa when the Omicron variant emerged.

    South Africa had slammed the bans as a ‘travel apartheid’, accusing the UK and other nations of ‘punishingit over the mutant strain.

    Timeline of Covid travel restrictions in England

    17 游行 2020: Britons advised against ‘all non-essential travel’.

    8 六月 2020: 14-day quarantine periods imposed for travellers arriving from abroad.

    10 七月 2020: Travel corridors opened, permitting people arriving from certain countries not to self-isolate.

    The list was prone to last minute changes, often throwing people’s summer plans into jeopardy.

    14 十二月 2020: Self-isolation periods shortened to ten days.

    15 一月 2021: People are required to show a negative Covid test result upon arriving in the UK.

    18 一月 2021: England suspends all ‘travel corridorsto stop new variants entering the country. It comes after many European countries banned UK visitors due to the new variant.

    15 二月 2021: Hotel quarantine opens for arrivals from ‘high-risk’ 国家. People will be required to stay in the Government-managed centres for ten days at a cost of £1,750 per adult.

    17 可能 2021: Holiday ban ends, and the ‘travel corridorssystem is replaced by a new ‘traffic light’ 系统.

    It is also plagued by last minute changes to the rules, discouraging international travel.

    19 七月 2021: Quarantine requirements lifted for double-jabbed travellers returning from amber list countries, opening up tourism again.

    26 十一月 2021: South Africa becomes the first country to be put back on the red list amid the spread of the Omicron variant. It is quickly joined by other countries.

    15 十二月 2021: All countries are again removed from the red list after Omicron becomes established in the UK.

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    But British ministers defended the move as ‘decisive’, saying they were ‘waiting to seeexactly how dangerous Omicron was.

    Currently double-vaccinated travellers are only required to complete a passenger locator form when arriving in England.

    But this could be scrapped before the Easter school holidays, as ministers look to drop the final Covid curbs.

    Unvaccinated travellers are asked to get a test before and after they arrive in the country, although they are no longer required to self-isolate.

    Dr Aggarwal, an infectious disease expert, 说过: ‘Our study shows that while travel restrictions are effective in reducing the number of imported Covid cases, they do not eliminate them entirely.

    ‘It’s likely that one of the main reasons that quarantine measures helped is that they put people off travelling during this period.

    In the study — published in Nature Communications — researchers used data to find Covid cases linked to travel and the number of contacts each reported.

    Contacts were people who had face-to-face contact with an infected individual for more than 15 分钟, possibly through sitting next to them in a car or plane.

    It was not possible to determine how many of these later developed Covid because of the way data was recorded.

    Almost half of Covid cases in the study were from countries under 14-day quarantine rules.

    But the top sources of infections were all on the ‘travel corridorlist allowing arrivals to dodge the rule.

    Greece was the single-biggest source of cases from abroad over this period (21 per cent of the total).

    It was not removed from the travel corridor until early November.

    克罗地亚 (16 百分) 当女性达到更年期 (14 百分) were also major sources of imported cases and both off the list.

    Broken down by age, quarantine measures had the greatest impact on 16 to 20-year-olds. Their contacts fell from 9 至 4.7.

    There was also a big impact among 21 to 25-year-olds, who saw contacts drop from 6.5 至 3.5, 和 26 to 30-year-olds, where they fell from 4.8 至 2.4.

    The scientists wrote: ‘For most common destinations, barring Spain, imported cases appear to reduce after the closing of a travel corridor and subsequent requirement to quarantine.