Huge toothy swordfish-like creature lived 130 百万年前

Meet the marine reptile with an ‘arsenal of teeth’: Huge swordfish-like creature roamed the waters of what is now Colombia 130 百万年前, 研究は見つけます

  • The creature’s fossil was unearthed north of Villa de Leyva back in the 1970s
  • It has a ‘stunninglypreserved skull, three feet in length, with varied teeth
  • The specimen belongs to an order of marine reptiles known as ichthyosaurs
  • Experts from McGill have revealed that its genus was previously misclassified
  • They have now renamed the large-mouthed creature as ‘Kyhytysuka sachicarum
  • Kyhytysuka means ‘the one that cuts with something sharpin a local language
  • 大きい, swordfish-like creature with a veritable ‘arsenal of teethswam the shallow waters of what is today Colombia some 130 百万年前, 研究が発見した.

    Researchers from McGill University reanalysed fossilised remains that were unearthed near Villa de Leyva in Colombia’s Boyacá department back in the 1970s.

    The specimen has a stunningly preserved, 3-feet-long skull, and is an ichthyosaur, an order of marine reptiles that lived from 250–90 million years ago.

    に 1997, experts assigned the fossil to the genus platypterygius, a grouping some have said is a ‘wastebaskettaxon used to classify species that don’t fit elsewhere.

    Yet fresh study of the skull, which is held in the Colombian National Geological Museum in Bogotá, has revealed that it belongs to a new genus — ‘Kyhytysuka’.

    The revelation, チームは言った, is helping to refine our understanding of the ichthyosaur family tree and how its members evolved.

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    大きい, swordfish-like creature (depicted in an artist's impression) with a veritable 'arsenal of teeth' swam the water of what is today Colombia some 130 百万年前, 研究が発見した

    大きい, swordfish-like creature (depicted in an artist’s impression) with a veritable ‘arsenal of teethswam the water of what is today Colombia some 130 百万年前, 研究が発見した

    The specimen has a well-preserved, 3-feet-long skull  (写真, 上, and illustrated, 下), and is an ichthyosaur, an order of marine reptiles from 250¿90 million years ago

    The specimen has a well-preserved, 3-feet-long skull (写真, 上, and illustrated, 下), and is an ichthyosaur, an order of marine reptiles from 250–90 million years ago








    KYHYTYSUKA STATS

    Full name: Kyhytysuka sachicarum

    年齢: 周り 130 百万年前

    Locality: Villa de Leyva, コロンビア

    Skull length: 3 足 (94 CM)

    Dentition: Varied teeth shapes

    Ate: Both small and large prey

    Maximum mouth gape: 70°

    広告

    The study of Kyhytysuka was undertaken by vertebrate palaeontologist Hans Larsson, of Canada’s McGill University, and his colleagues.

    ‘This animal evolved a unique dentition that allowed it to eat large prey,’ Professor Larsson explained.

    ‘Whereas other ichthyosaurs had small, equally sized teeth for feeding on small prey, this new species modified its tooth sizes and spacing to build an arsenal of teeth for dispatching large prey, like big fishes and other marine reptiles.

    例えば, while Kyhytysuka’s front-most teeth were long and slender, and optimised to grip smaller prey, the saw-toothed dentition further into the jaw seemed to have evolved to shear the creature’s victims.

    その間, Kyhytysuka’s back set of teeth were short and robust, suggesting they were used to crush prey — a conclusion supported by the reinforced connection between the brain-case and skull bone hints at an increased bite force.

    さらに, the team’s analysis indicated that, while the marine reptile would have been unable to move its jaws much side-to-side, it could open its mouth to a colossal gape of 75°, which would have allowed it to swallow very large prey.

    に 1997, experts assigned the fossil to the genus platypterygius, a grouping some have said is a 'wastebasket' taxon used to classify species that don't fit elsewhere. Yet fresh study of the skull, which is held in the Colombian National Geological Museum in Bogotá, has revealed that it belongs to a new genus ¿ 'Kyhytysuka' (artist's impression)

    に 1997, experts assigned the fossil to the genus platypterygius, a grouping some have said is a ‘wastebaskettaxon used to classify species that don’t fit elsewhere. Yet fresh study of the skull, which is held in the Colombian National Geological Museum in Bogotá, has revealed that it belongs to a new genus — ‘Kyhytysuka’ (artist’s impression)

    'This animal evolved a unique dentition that allowed it to eat large prey,' said paper author and vertebrate palaeontologist Hans Larsson of McGill University. 彼は続けた: 'Whereas other ichthyosaurs had small, equally sized teeth for feeding on small prey, this new species modified its tooth sizes and spacing to build an arsenal of teeth for dispatching large prey, like big fishes and other marine reptiles.' Pictured: the groupings of Kyhytysuka's teeth

    ‘This animal evolved a unique dentition that allowed it to eat large prey,’ said paper author and vertebrate palaeontologist Hans Larsson of McGill University. 彼は続けた: ‘Whereas other ichthyosaurs had small, equally sized teeth for feeding on small prey, this new species modified its tooth sizes and spacing to build an arsenal of teeth for dispatching large prey, like big fishes and other marine reptiles.’ 写真: the groupings of Kyhytysuka’s teeth

    ‘We compared this animal to other Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs and were able to define a new type,’ said paper author and palaeontologist Erin Maxwell, formerly of McGill but now based at the State Natural History Museum of Stuttgart.

    ‘This shakes up the evolutionary tree of ichthyosaurs and lets us test new ideas of how they evolved.

    The fact that the specimen has relatively small eye sockets (‘orbits’) and a linear jaw line indicates that the creature would have swum in shallow waters.

    ‘We decided to name it Kyhytysuka, which translates tothe one that cuts with something sharpin an indigenous language from the region in central Colombia where the fossil was found,’ said paper author Dirley Cortés, also of McGill.

    This genus name, 彼が追加した, honours ‘the ancient Muisca culture that existed there for millennia.

    'We compared this animal to other Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs and were able to define a new type,' said paper author and palaeontologist Erin Maxwell, formerly of McGill but now based at the State Natural History Museum of Stuttgart. 写真: an illustration of Kyhytysuka's varied dentition and sizeable gape of up to 75°, allowing it to swallow large prey

    ‘We compared this animal to other Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs and were able to define a new type,’ said paper author and palaeontologist Erin Maxwell, formerly of McGill but now based at the State Natural History Museum of Stuttgart. 写真: an illustration of Kyhytysuka’s varied dentition and sizeable gape of up to 75°, allowing it to swallow large prey

    The finding, Dr Maxwell added, 'shakes up the evolutionary tree of ichthyosaurs and lets us test new ideas of how they evolved.' Pictured: an artist's impression of Kyhytysuka's mouth

    The finding, Dr Maxwell added, ‘shakes up the evolutionary tree of ichthyosaurs and lets us test new ideas of how they evolved.’ 写真: an artist’s impression of Kyhytysuka’s mouth

    'We decided to name it Kyhytysuka, which translates to "the one that cuts with something sharp" in an indigenous language from the region in central Colombia where the fossil was found,' said paper author Dirley Cortés, also of McGill. 写真: isolated teeth of Kyhytysuka (一番上の行) and teeth in cross section (最終行), shown in both photograph and illustration

    ‘We decided to name it Kyhytysuka, which translates tothe one that cuts with something sharpin an indigenous language from the region in central Colombia where the fossil was found,’ said paper author Dirley Cortés, also of McGill. 写真: isolated teeth of Kyhytysuka (一番上の行) and teeth in cross section (最終行), shown in both photograph and illustration

    チームによると, Kyhytysuka comes from an important period of transition in the Early Cretaceous, during which Earth was coming out of a relatively cool period, sea levels were rising and the supercontinent Pangaea was cleaving into two.

    The Cretaceous also began in the wake of a global extinction event that altered the composition of both marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

    ‘Many classic Jurassic marine ecosystems of deep-water feeding ichthyosaurs, short-necked plesiosaurs, and marine-adapted crocodiles were succeeded by new lineages,’ said Ms Cortés.

    これらは, 彼女は説明した, included ‘long-necked plesiosaurs, sea turtles, large marine lizards called mosasaurs, and now this monster ichthyosaur.

    The genus name of Kyhytysuka, Ms Cortés added, honours 'the ancient Muisca culture that existed there for millennia.' Pictured: an illustrated cross section of the ichthyosaur, with the silhouette of a human diver shown for scale

    The genus name of Kyhytysuka, Ms Cortés added, honours ‘the ancient Muisca culture that existed there for millennia.’ 写真: an illustrated cross section of the ichthyosaur, with the silhouette of a human diver shown for scale

    Researchers from McGill University reanalysed fossilised remains that were unearthed near Villa de Leyva in Colombia's Boyacá department back in the 1970s

    Researchers from McGill University reanalysed fossilised remains that were unearthed near Villa de Leyva in Colombia’s Boyacá department back in the 1970s

    ‘We are discovering many new species in the rocks this new ichthyosaur comes from,’ Ms Cortés continued.

    ‘We are testing the idea that this region and time in Colombia was an ancient biodiversity hotspot and are using the fossils to better understand the evolution of marine ecosystems during this transitional time.

    With this study complete, the researchers are now exploring the wealth of new fossils housed in Villa de Leyva’s Centro de Investigaciones Paleontológicas.

    ‘This is where I grew up,’ Ms Cortés noted, 追加する: ‘It is so rewarding to get to do research here too.

    The full findings of the study were published in the Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.

    What we know about ichthyosaurs — marine predators that ruled the waters in the era of the dinosaurs

    魚竜は、周りで絶滅した海に行く爬虫類の非常に成功したグループでした 90 百万年前.

    彼らは三畳紀の間に現れました, ジュラ紀の間に彼らのピークに達した, 白亜紀に姿を消した.

    しばしば水泳恐竜と誤認されます, これらの爬虫類は、最初の恐竜が出現する前に出現しました.

    彼らは、まだ水に戻った未確認の陸生爬虫類から進化しました.

    巨大な動物, 何百万年もの間食物連鎖のトップにとどまりました, 合理化された開発, スピードを重視して作られた魚のようなフォルム.

    科学者は、1つの種の巡航速度が 22 mph (36 kph).

    魚竜の最大の種は、 20 メートル (65 フィート) 長さで.

    The largest complete ichthyologists fossil ever discovered, で 11 足 (3.5 m), まだ子宮の中に胎児がいることがわかった.

    科学者は8月に言った 2017 不完全な胚は7センチ未満でした (2.7 インチ) 長く、保存された椎骨で構成されていた, フォアフィン, 肋骨と他のいくつかの骨.

    それが死んだとき、胎児がまだ子宮の中で発達していたという証拠がありました.

    この発見は、魚竜が若くして生きるために出産したという証拠に追加されました, 産卵恐竜とは異なり.

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