Is this folding method how European Royals shared their secrets?

How Tudor Queens kept their secrets: New research reveals Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots used intricate ‘letterlockingtechnique to send notes securely

  • Letterlocking technique involves intricately folding paper to become envelope
  • Writers in the 16th century used the method as a complicated way of security
  • Spies would be unable to access the contents of the letter undetected
  • New research shows the method was regularly used by European royals
  • Mary Queen of Scots used ‘letterlockingfor a note hours before beheading
  • Queen Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots were among the European Royals who used an intricate folding method to share their most important secrets, [object Window].

    The letterlocking process dates back to the 13th century and involved cutting a small slit or tab into a piece of paper and combining it with a folding technique to secure the letter with intricate stiches.

    It would effectively change the paper into its own envelope, preventing reading it without breaking seals or slips, providing a means of security, and the new research has shown just how popular the practice was amongst Queens.

    The technique, which could take hours to successfully complete, was common for secure communication before modern envelopes came into use, en word beskou as die ontbrekende skakel tussen antieke fisieke kommunikasiebeveiligingstegnieke en moderne digitale kriptografie.

    According to a new article in the Electronic British Library Journal, 16th century royals would regularly use spiral letterlocking to send notes securely, with lead author Jana Dambrogio explaining: ‘You had to be highly confident to make a spiral lock. If you made a mistake, you’d have to start all over, which could take hours of rewriting and restitching.

    Among those who used the method were Mary Queen of Scots, who used the method to write a note hours before she was beheaded in 1587.

    Queen Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots were among the European Royals who used an intricate folding method to share their most important secrets, [object Window]

    Queen Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots were among the European Royals who used an intricate folding method to share their most important secrets, [object Window]

    Among those who used the techniques were Mary Queen of Scots, who used the method to write a note hours before she was beheaded in 1587 (op die foto, her letter)

    Among those who used the techniques were Mary Queen of Scots, who used the method to write a note hours before she was beheaded in 1587 (op die foto, her letter)

    The 'letterlocking' process involves intricately folding and securing a flat sheet of paper to become its own envelope

    The ‘letterlockingprocess involves intricately folding and securing a flat sheet of paper to become its own envelope

    Dr. Wiggins wrote that the combined effect of the lock, her own handwriting and her signature let Mary ‘build bonds of affinity and kinship and assurances of authenticity.

    Royals would fold the letter before cutting a strip, which would then be used to sew stitches to lock the letter.

    The method would turn a piece of flat writing paper into its own envelope, thus locking it securely from prying eyes.

    If a spy wanted to access the letter, he would have to snip it open, which was impossible to do undetected.

    There are multiple different types of folds and cuts through could be made to change a letter into an envelope.

    Queen Elizabeth I used the method in 1573 as the sovereign ruler of England and Ireland to pen a letter to King Henry III

    Queen Elizabeth I used the method in 1573 as the sovereign ruler of England and Ireland to pen a letter to King Henry III

    Royals would fold the letter before cutting a strip, which would then be used to sew stitches to lock the letter. The method would turn a piece of flat writing paper into it's own envelope, thus locking it securely from spying eyes (pictured a letter dated December 16 1638)

    Royals would fold the letter before cutting a strip, which would then be used to sew stitches to lock the letter. The method would turn a piece of flat writing paper into it’s own envelope, thus locking it securely from spying eyes (pictured a letter dated December 16 1638)

    Writing her locked letter on 8 Februarie 1587, Mary Queen of Scots penned: ‘Vanaand, after dinner, I have been advised of my sentence: I am to be executed like a criminal at eight in the morning.

    BRIEFSLUITERING: BEWAARDE VAN WOORDE SONDER 'N KONVELOP

    Gewild in die 17de eeu, Letterlocking is die proses om 'n brief sonder koevert te beveilig.

    Dit behels 'n ingewikkelde proses van sny en vou.

    Dit gebruik klein splete, oortjie en gate in 'n letter geplaas en gekombineer met vou, verseker die afleweringsbrief.

    There are a number of different types of letterbinding and they’re often unique to the binder.

    At the most basic level it involves intricately folding and securing a flat sheet of paper to become its own envelope around a letter.

    Terwyl die tegniek dateer uit die 13de eeu, the term ‘letterlockingwasn’t coined until 2009.

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    ‘The Catholic faith and the assertion of my God-given right to the English crown are the two issues on which I am condemned.

    According to the paper, Catherine deMedici used the method in 1570 when she was governing France while her son, King Charles IX, sat on its throne.

    Her son, Francis II, became King aged just 15 after his 40-year-old father died in a jousting accidentbeginning Catherine’s long-term role as a ruler through her children, where she apparently used ‘black magic’, poison and massacres to ensure her family remained on the throne.

    During her power, Catherine was one of the most influential personalities of the Catholic–Huguenot wars, known as Wars of Religion, and a conflict in France from 1562 aan 1598 between Protestants and Roman Catholics.

    She wrote a letter, which she ‘lockedusing the technique, to French politician Raimond de Beccarie.

    Meanwhile Queen Elizabeth I used the method in 1573 as the sovereign ruler of England and Ireland to pen a letter to King Henry III.

    The scholars suggested the different examples show how the method was used in diplomacy as well as being a form of cachet.

    Tot onlangs, these locked letters could only be studied and read by cutting them open, beskadig dikwels die historiese dokumente.

    However last year, using a highly sensitive X-ray scanner, 'n span van die Queen Mary Universiteit van Londen het die brief wat met 'n 'letterlocking' gesluit is, ondersoek’ process as scientists ‘digitallyunfolded the paper.

    The team were able to examine the letters’ inhoud sonder om die stelsels wat dit beveilig het, onherroeplik te beskadig.

    Professor Graham Davis van die Queen Mary Universiteit van Londen het gesê dat die skandeerder ontwerp is om ongekende sensitiwiteitsvlakke te hê om minerale in die tande in kaart te bring..

    Dit is 'van onskatbare waarde vir tandheelkundige navorsing.

    According to the paper, Catherine de' Medici used the method in 1570 when she was governing France while her son, King Charles IX, sat on its throne

    According to the paper, Catherine deMedici used the method in 1570 when she was governing France while her son, King Charles IX, sat on its throne

    She wrote a letter, which she 'locked' using the technique, to French politician Raimond de Beccarie (op die foto)

    She wrote a letter, which she ‘lockedusing the technique, to French politician Raimond de Beccarie (op die foto)

    Maar hierdie hoë sensitiwiteit het dit ook moontlik gemaak om sekere soorte ink in papier en perkament op te los. Dit is ongelooflik om te dink dat 'n skandeerder wat ontwerp is om na tande te kyk, ons so ver gevoer het.’

    Hierdie proses het die inhoud van 'n brief van Julie onthul 31, 1697. Dit bevat 'n versoek van Jacques Sennacques aan sy neef Pierre Le Pers, 'n Franse handelaar in Den Haag, vir 'n gewaarmerkte afskrif van 'n sterfkennis van ene Daniel Le Pers.

    Die brief gee 'n insig in die lewens en bekommernisse van gewone mense in 'n onstuimige tydperk van die Europese geskiedenis, het die span verduidelik.

    Dit was in 'n tyd toe korrespondensie-netwerke gesinne gehou het, gemeenskappe, en handel oor groot afstande saam.

    Laas jaar, the letter was virtually unfolded and read for the first time since it was written 300 jare terug

    Laas jaar, the letter was virtually unfolded and read for the first time since it was written 300 jare terug

    Na die X-straal mikrotomografie-skandering van die letterpakkette, die span het toe berekeningsalgoritmes toegepas op die scanbeelde.

    Dit het hulle in staat gestel om die verskillende lae van die gevoude letter te identifiseer en te skei en 'feitlik oop te vou’ dit om die inhoud binne te lees.

    Die outeurs stel voor dat die virtuele ontvouingsmetode, en kategorisering van voutegnieke, kan navorsers help om hierdie historiese weergawe van fisiese kriptografie te verstaan, terwyl hulle terselfdertyd hul kulturele erfenis bewaar.

    'Hierdie algoritme neem ons reg in die hart van 'n geslote brief,’ het die navorsingspan verduidelik in hul referaat gepubliseer in Nature Communications.

    ‘Soms weerstaan ​​die verlede ondersoek. Ons sou hierdie briewe kon oopknip, maar in plaas daarvan het ons die tyd geneem om dit vir hul verborge te bestudeer, geheime eienskappe.

    'Ons het geleer dat briewe baie openbaarder kan wees as dit nie oopgemaak word nie. Gebruik virtuele ontvouing om 'n intieme verhaal te lees wat nog nooit die lig gesien het nie – en het nooit eers sy ontvanger bereik nie – is werklik buitengewoon.’

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