James Webb Space Telescope begins unfolding its massive sunshield

James Webb Space Telescope begins unfolding its massive sunshield as it enters the most perilous phase of ’29 days on the edgejourney to solar orbit

  • NASA’s $10 billion James Webb Space Telescope launched on Christmas Day from French Guiana
  • The massive observatory is a joint project with the European (这个) and Canadian (CSA) space agencies
  • NASA confirmed that it has now travelled beyond the moon on its million mile journey into the solar system
  • On Tuesday night NASA confirmed that the telescope had begun unfolding its massive sunshade
  • It is currently at the most perilous stage of its 29 天, one million mile journey to its solar orbit destination
  • This voyage, dubbed ’29 days on the edge’, will take a month with the first images expected in June 2022
  • 美国宇航局‘s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has reached a major milestone in its ’29 days on the edgejourney to its destination in solar orbit, beginning the unfolding of its massive sunshield.

    ‘Our telescope is blooming like a flower in space,’ the US space agency tweeted,’ adding that ‘this marks the start of a major phase to #UnfoldTheUniverse: our sunshield deployment.

    The unfolding of the sunshine happened soon after the telescope, a joint project between NASA, the European Space Agency (这个) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), passed the moon.

    的 $10 billion stellar observatory is gradually preparing to begin observations, starting in June 2022, by gradually unfolding its antenna, sunshield, and mirror on the way to its final orbit.

    The telescope launched on 圣诞 Day from French Guiana, on an Ariane 5 rocket provided by the European Space Agency, following months of delays to the launch.

    It is currently about 40 per cent of its way to the second Lagrangian point (L2), an area of balanced gravity between the sun and the Earth, where it will spend more than a decade exploring the universe in infrared.

    The sunshield will be deployed gradually over the next five days of the journey, 哪一个, once fully open will be about the same size as a tennis court, and protect Webb’s optics from the sun.








    The sunshield will be deployed gradually over the next five days of the journey, 哪一个, once fully open will be about the same size as a tennis court, and protect Webb's optics from the sun

    The sunshield will be deployed gradually over the next five days of the journey, 哪一个, once fully open will be about the same size as a tennis court, and protect Webb’s optics from the sun

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) swung past the moon in the early hours of this morning, travelling at more than 2,400 miles per hour as it continues its million mile journey to its destination in solar orbit

    NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) swung past the moon in the early hours of this morning, travelling at more than 2,400 miles per hour as it continues its million mile journey to its destination in solar orbit

    TIMELINE OF THE JWST JOURNEY TO L2

    The Jame Webb Space Telescope will spend the rest of its life at the second Lagrangian point between the Earth and the Sun.

    This is a point where the gravitational forces of the two bodies are balanced.

    It is just under a million miles from the Earth’s surface, and on the way there JWST will perform a number of tasks.

    • 3-9 天: Deploy the delicate sunshield that will keep it cool
    • 10-11 天: deploy the secondary mirror
    • 12-14 天: Deploy the primary mirror
    • 15-26 天: Unfold and check the mirror segments
    • 29 天: Insertion into the L2 point
    • 6 月: First images after months of calibration
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    The first stage of preparing the sunshield involved unfolding the pallet, which is ‘like a cake stand that will hold five layers of sunshieldaccording to NASA.

    This happened late last night, and then just after midnight GMT, NASA confirmed the back sunshield pallet had also deployed, meaning the giant observatory is beginning to take shape.

    The telescope will have a hot and cold side, with the hot side, behind the sunshield, experiencing temperatures up to 185 华氏度 – holding a solar panel, communication antenna and a computer.

    The cold side of the telescope will be at -388 华氏度, holding the mirrors and science instruments.

    It reached the attitude of the moon at about 01:20 GMT on Tuesday morning, around the same time it completed its second burn, as it continues on its journey.

    NASA tweeted: ‘It’s been a busy evening! Not only did we just complete our second burn, but #NASAWebb also passed the altitude of the Moon as it keeps cruising on to the second Lagrange point to #UnfoldTheUniverse.

    The space telescope is intended to replace its 30-year-old counterpart Hubble, and is about 100 times more sensitive than the ageing observatory, but will run alongside it for as long as Hubble remains operational.

    Astronomers expect the JWST to ‘profoundly transformtheir understanding of the universe and our place in it, including being able to peer at the atmosphere of planets, and the first stars to form after the Big Bang.

    When the telescope reached the moon, the NASAMoon 推特 account posted: ‘We thought we felt a breeze! Kidding, 当然, but good luck on the rest of your journey to L2.

    NASA also shared, from the NASAWebb Twitter account: ‘Thanks, @NASAMoon! We’ll be sure to send you and all the wonderful folks on @NASAEarth a postcard when we reach our destination.

    The second burn was to make a mid-course correction, fine-tuning the trajectory to the L2 point, and is one of three planned for the journey.

    The first burn was on Christmas Day, soon after launch, and saw it burn off a small amount of fuel, allowing it to make small adjustments to its course.

    NASA wrote on Twitter: ‘One interesting aspect of the #NASAWebb launch and its burns is that we alwaysaim a little bit low”.

    ‘Webb’s thrusters can only push Webb away from the sun, not back toward the sun (and Earth). We designed launch and these burns to always avoid drifting away.

    NASAMoon tweeted 'we thought we felt a breeze' as JWST reached lunar altitude on its way to L2

    NASAMoon tweeted ‘we thought we felt a breezeas JWST reached lunar altitude on its way to L2

    Other NASA Twitter accounts got involved in the discussion, with NASAWebb offering to send a postcard, and NASAEarth reminding Webb to 'phone home'

    Other NASA Twitter accounts got involved in the discussion, with NASAWebb offering to send a postcard, and NASAEarth reminding Webb to ‘phone home

    WHAT IS THE L2 LAGRANGIAN POINT?

    L2 is one of the so-called Lagrangian points, discovered by mathematician Joseph Louis Lagrange.

    Lagrangian points are locations in space where gravitational forces and the orbital motion of a body balance each other.

    因此, they can be used by spacecraft to ‘hover’. L2 is located nearly a million miles ‘behindthe Earth.

    It is about four times further away from the Earth than the Moon ever gets and orbits the Sun at the same rate as the Earth.

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    The space telescope deployed its gimbaled antenna assembly on December 26.

    This includes the high-data-rate dish antenna that Webb will use to send at least 28.6Gb of data back to Earth twice a dayincluding images from observations.

    The release of the antenna began shortly after 10:00 EST (15:00 格林威治标准时间) 在十二月 26, and the entire process took around one hour.

    分别地, NASA has confirmed that the temperature sensors and strain gauges on the telescope were successfully activated for the first time.

    ‘Temperature and strain data are now available to engineers monitoring Webb’s thermal and structural systems,’ 美国宇航局说.

    The telescope launched into space on board an Ariane 5 rocket on Christmas Day.

    花了 off from the European Spaceport facility in French Guiana before blasting skywards over the Atlantic Ocean.

    Cheers were on pause for another nerve-wracking 27 minutes as the rocket ejected its boosters and soared to an altitude of 870 英里 (1,398公里) before finally detaching the telescope to begin its own journey.

    With its liftoff, a spokesperson for NASA said, ‘Webb will usher in a new era of astronomy’.

    Following the launch on December 25, NASA has now confirmed that the gimbaled antenna assembly has been successfully deployed

    Following the launch on December 25, NASA has now confirmed that the gimbaled antenna assembly has been successfully deployed

    After a perfect flight out of the Earth's atmosphere and into space, the James Webb telescope module detached from the body of the Ariane 5 rocket that had blasted it skywards, leading to cheers from nervous scientists at mission control in Kourou, French Guiana

    After a perfect flight out of the Earth’s atmosphere and into space, the James Webb telescope module detached from the body of the Ariane 5 rocket that had blasted it skywards, leading to cheers from nervous scientists at mission control in Kourou, French Guiana

    NASA 's revolutionary James Webb Space Telescope has successfully lifted off to start its long flight into space to replace the Hubble telescope after decades of planning and delays

    NASA ‘s revolutionary James Webb Space Telescope has successfully lifted off to start its long flight into space to replace the Hubble telescope after decades of planning and delays

    Pictures from the European Space Agency's Spaceport facility in French Guiana show the Webb telescope module atop an Ariane 5 rocket blasting off from Earth at 7.20AM ET (12.00PM GMT) on its million-mile journey into solar orbit

    Pictures from the European Space Agency’s Spaceport facility in French Guiana show the Webb telescope module atop an Ariane 5 rocket blasting off from Earth at 7.20AM ET (12.00PM GMT) on its million-mile journey into solar orbit

    At 7.20am the world's most powerful space telescope, equipped with an Ariane 5 rocket, took off in magnificent form before blasting skywards over the Atlantic Ocean

    At 7.20am the world’s most powerful space telescope, equipped with an Ariane 5 rocket, took off in magnificent form before blasting skywards over the Atlantic Ocean

    Engines on the Ariane 5 rocket engaged for a whole seven seconds at the spaceship warmed up before lift off actually took place at 7.20AM ET

    Engines on the Ariane 5 rocket engaged for a whole seven seconds at the spaceship warmed up before lift off actually took place at 7.20AM ET

    Instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope

    近红外摄像头 (近红外相机) 从可见光边缘到近红外线的红外成像仪

    近红外光谱 (近红外光谱仪) 还将在相同的波长范围内进行光谱分析.

    美里 (中红外仪器) 将测量中长红外波长范围从 5 至 27 千分尺.

    FGS/NIRISS (精细制导传感器和近红外成像仪和无缝隙光谱仪), 用于在科学观测时稳定天文台的视线.

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    The new telescope’s special orbital path will keep it in constant alignment with Earth as the planet and telescope circle the sun in tandem.

    The project, which started in 1996, is an international collaboration led by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian space agencies.

    It had been hit by months of launch delays, which followed years of delays to its construction, with the first launch date scheduled in 2007.

    The launch was lastly rescheduled for Christmas Eve, before finally being moved to December 25, with a launch window between 07:20 和 (12:20 格林威治标准时间) 和 07:52 和 (12:52 格林威治标准时间).

    Ahead of the launch, it was loaded into the fairing of an Ariane 5 rocket, and moved on to the launch pad at the Europeans Space Agency facility in French Guiana.

    Officials had confirmed that the Ariane 5 was in good shape, and that the only problem facing the launch was the start of the rainy season in French Guiana.

    Work on the James Web Telescope, also known as JWST or Webb, first began in 1996 and at the time NASA had just a $500 million budget to complete it.

    The agency was set to launch it in 2007, but cost overruns and technical issues forced a major redesign in 2005 that led to its first delay.

    Construction of the telescope was completed in 2016, allowing testing to begin, but two years later the massive sunshield ripped during a practice run that led to another postponement.

    Launch teams monitor the countdown to the launch of Arianespace's Ariane 5 rocket carrying NASA's James Webb Space Telescope on December 25

    Launch teams monitor the countdown to the launch of Arianespace’s Ariane 5 rocket carrying NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope on December 25

    Dubbed a 'Christmas miracle' by anxious astronomers, the massive, next generation Jame Webb Space Telescope is pictured on the launch pad

    Dubbed a ‘Christmas miracleby anxious astronomers, the massive, next generation Jame Webb Space Telescope is pictured on the launch pad

    The telescope has been hit by months of launch delays, which followed years of delays to its construction, with its first launch date supposed to be in 2007

    The telescope has been hit by months of launch delays, which followed years of delays to its construction, with its first launch date supposed to be in 2007

    And then the coronavirus pandemic that hit in 2020 caused even more delays.

    在十月 2021, James Webb finally arrived in French Guiana following a 16-day sea voyage onboard the MN Colibri, and was removed from the transport container prior to launch preparations.

    Fuelling operations began on November 25, according to NASA, and took about 10 天.

    The space telescope was then secured on top of the Ariane 5 rocket on Saturday, 十二月 11, at the Guiana Space Center, as it geared up to launch on December 24.

    But Mother Nature seemed to have other plans and the mission was moved a day later.

    Ahead of launch, it was loaded into the fairing of an Ariane 5 rocket, and moved on to the launch pad at the Europeans Space Agency facility in French Guiana

    Ahead of launch, it was loaded into the fairing of an Ariane 5 rocket, and moved on to the launch pad at the Europeans Space Agency facility in French Guiana

    It is so large it was folded, origami-style, to fit in the rocket, according to NASA, and unfurl ‘like a Transformerin space, spreading its mirrors out to collect light from deep in the history of the universe.

    Mark McCaughrean, ESA Webb Interdisciplinary Scientist, has been waiting more than 20 years for the chance to gather data using Webb.

    He told MailOnline he wasn’t really nervous about it launching, as it had been tested, simulated and prepared to within an inch of its life, and he had faith in the engineers.

    ‘Launch is always a worry, you’ve sat an expensive piece of kit on a barely guided explosion, but it is what we do, and the Ariane 5 is a workhorse,’ 他说.

    The telescope is so large it was folded, origami-style, to fit in the rocket, according to NASA, and will unfurl 'like a Transformer' in space, spreading its mirrors out to collect light from deep in the history of the universe

    The telescope is so large it was folded, origami-style, to fit in the rocket, according to NASA, and will unfurl ‘like a Transformerin space, spreading its mirrors out to collect light from deep in the history of the universe

    Already years late in leaving the Earth for space, Webb will look back to almost the beginning of time, to when the first stars and galaxies were forming

    Already years late in leaving the Earth for space, Webb will look back to almost the beginning of time, to when the first stars and galaxies were forming

    主要是红外望远镜, Webb has a wider spectrum view than Hubble and operate further out from the Earth, 在太阳轨道上. It launched on a European Space Agency Ariane 5 rocket from near Kourou in French Guiana

    主要是红外望远镜, Webb has a wider spectrum view than Hubble and operate further out from the Earth, 在太阳轨道上. It launched on a European Space Agency Ariane 5 rocket from near Kourou in French Guiana

    Nasa brushes off petition to rename James Webb

    在十月, NASA announced that it will not rename the James Webb Telescope ahead of its launch in December, despite a petition against honoring a space pioneer who some have now claimed was homophobic.

    Webb, 谁死于 1992 老化的 85, was the second administrator in NASA’s history, taking over at the request of John F. Kennedy in 1961.

    He ran the agency until 1968 and was instrumental in the Apollo programs that would see, the year after his departure, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on the moon.

    在 2002 the agency announced that its $10billion new telescopedue for launch in December 2021 – would be named after him.

    Yet in recent years the decision has stirred criticism, and a petition this year to rename it has received 1,200 签名.

    Organizers accuse Webb of being homophobic, due to his role in the 1963 firing of a gay NASA employee.

    Questions were also asked about his participation in a 1950-52 ‘Lavender Scare’, when he was at the State Department, 和 91 gay people were ‘purged’.

    But on September 30 Bill Nelson, the NASA administrator, said they had decided against renaming the telescope.

    ‘We have found no evidence at this time that warrants changing the name of the James Webb Space Telescope,’ 他说 美国国家公共电台.

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    Even though the launch went to plan, the ‘scary partfor many astronomers will come in a few weeks, when the observatory reaches its solar orbit.

    Webb will travel to an orbit about one million miles away from Earth and undergo six months of commissioning in space – including unfolding its mirrors and sunshield, cooling down, aligning and calibrating.

    ‘Astronomers worldwide will then be able to conduct scientific observations to broaden our understanding of the universe,’ 美国宇航局说.

    The telescope is named after the late James E. Webb, an American government official who was the administrator of NASA from 1961 至 1968 and played an integral role in the Apollo program.

    NASA’s decision to name the device after him was a controversial one – he has been accused of homophobia since his passing in 1992 due to his role in the 1963 firing of a gay NASA employee.

    在十月, NASA announced that it will not rename the James Webb Telescope ahead of its launch in December, despite a petition against honouring a space pioneer who some have now claimed was homophobic.

    Webb, 谁死于 1992 老化的 85, was the second administrator in NASA’s history, taking over at the request of John F. Kennedy in 1961.

    He ran the agency until 1968 and was instrumental in the Apollo programs that would see, the year after his departure, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on the moon.

    主要是红外望远镜, Webb will have a wider spectrum view than Hubble and operate further out from the Earth, 在太阳轨道上.

    McCaughrean said JWST lowers the floor for the type of objects we can see, mainly because the telescope itself is cold – 向下 -230 摄氏 – meaning it doesn’t emit much light in infrared, so astronomers don’t have to ‘fightagainst infrared given off on Earth.

    Webb will take pictures ten times sharper than Hubble, but hundreds of times deeper.

    Hubble is about 340 miles above the Earth surface, whereas Webb will be over a million miles away.

    Work on the James Web Telescope, also known as JWST or Webb, first began in 1996 and at the time NASA had just a $500 million budget to complete it

    Work on the James Web Telescope, also known as JWST or Webb, first began in 1996 and at the time NASA had just a $500 million budget to complete it

    The telescope will observe the Universe in the near-infrared and mid-infrared – at wavelengths longer than visible light. 这样做, it carries a suite of state-of-the-art cameras, 光谱仪和日冕仪

    The telescope will observe the Universe in the near-infrared and mid-infrared – at wavelengths longer than visible light. 这样做, it carries a suite of state-of-the-art cameras, 光谱仪和日冕仪

    Research by Ohio State University claims that within five years of it coming online, 詹姆斯韦伯将在遥远的世界发现外星生命的迹象.

    Graduate student Caprice Phillips calculated that it could detect ammonia created by living creatures around gas dwarf planets after just a few orbits.

    The James Webb Space Telescope has been described as a ‘time machine’ 这可能有助于解开我们宇宙的秘密, with distant objects emitting light from further back in time.

    该望远镜将用于回顾早期宇宙中诞生的第一个星系 13.5 十亿年前.

    Research by Ohio State University claims that within five years of it coming online, 詹姆斯韦伯将在遥远的世界发现外星生命的迹象

    Research by Ohio State University claims that within five years of it coming online, 詹姆斯韦伯将在遥远的世界发现外星生命的迹象

    关于 28 minutes after its blast-off, the James Webb detached from its launch vehicle and began 'the most complex sequence of deployments ever attempted in a single space mission'

    关于 28 minutes after its blast-off, the James Webb detached from its launch vehicle and began ‘the most complex sequence of deployments ever attempted in a single space mission

    它还将观察恒星的来源, 系外行星, 甚至我们太阳系的卫星和行星.

    Thousands of astronomers around the world have built future careers based on the potential of the Webb telescope.

    One group of researchers hope to use Webb to witness ‘cosmic dawn’ – the moment of first light for the first stars in the universe billions of years ago.

    James Webb 的设计寿命为五年,但 NASA 希望它能运行十年或更长时间 – similar to the fact Hubble has outlasted its lifespan by decadesalthough unlike Hubble it cannot be easily repaired.

    The telescope will observe the Universe in the near-infrared and mid-infrared – at wavelengths longer than visible light. 这样做, it carries a suite of state-of-the-art cameras, 光谱仪和日冕仪.

    Aside from procuring the Ariane 5 launcher and launch services, ESA is contributing the NIRSpec instrument and a share of the MIRI instrument.

    The first images will be test shots, rather than of anything specificit could copy Hubble and take an image of Jupiter as its first observation.

    取决于 30 percent of the first year of observations will be aimed at exoplanets, to study their orbit, size and atmosphere, in search of alien life.

    詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜: 下一个大型轨道天文台将用于寻找外星生命

    主要是红外望远镜, 它将拥有比哈勃更广的光谱视野,并在离地球更远的地方运行, 在太阳轨道上, 而不是地球轨道.

    研究由 俄亥俄 州立大学声称在其上线后的五年内, 詹姆斯韦伯将在遥远的世界发现外星生命的迹象.

    研究生 Caprice Phillips 计算出,只需绕几圈就可以检测到气体矮行星周围生物产生的氨.

    詹姆斯韦伯望远镜被描述为“时间机器”’ 这可能有助于解开我们宇宙的秘密.

    该望远镜将用于回顾早期宇宙中诞生的第一个星系 13.5 十亿年前.

    它还将观察恒星的来源, 系外行星, 甚至我们太阳系的卫星和行星.

    詹姆斯韦伯望远镜及其大部分仪器的工作温度大约为 40 开尔文.

    这是关于负 387 华氏度 (减去 233 摄氏).

    负责望远镜的航天机构官员表示,成本可能超过 $8 十亿 (56亿英镑) 国会设定的计划上限.

    NASA已经倾倒了 $7 十亿 (50 亿英镑) 自从它首次被提议作为长期运行的哈勃太空望远镜的替代品以来.

    当它在 2021, 它将成为世界上最大、最强大的望远镜, 能够回望 200 大爆炸后百万年.

    James Webb 的设计寿命为五年,但 NASA 希望它能运行十年或更长时间, 虽然由于它离地球很远,它不能轻易修复.

    它是 66 英尺 x 46 英尺,将在日地拉格朗日点运行 930,000 离地球几英里 – 几乎是月球的四倍.

    该望远镜将于 10 月底在欧洲主力 Ariane-5 火箭上发射 2021, 预计在 2022.

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