NASA's Curiosity rover sends a 'picture postcard' from Mars

Curiosity sends a ‘picture postcardfrom Mars! NASA rover snaps a stunning view from high up on a Martian mountain as it celebrates its 10th anniversary

  • NASA’s Curiosity rover has sent back a spectacular ‘picture postcardfrom Mars 10 years after it was launched
  • Robotic explorer snapped two black and white images of the Martian landscape from the side of Mount Sharp
  • These were combined and had colour added to them to produce the rare composite image, NASA revealed
  • Curiosity snapped the stunning images almost exactly 10 years after its launch to Mars on November 26, 2011
  • 美国宇航局‘s Curiosity rover has marked the 10th anniversary of its launch to Mars by sending back a spectacular ‘picture postcardfrom the Red Planet.

    The robotic explorer snapped two black and white images of the Martian landscape which were then combined and had colour added to them to produce the remarkable composite.

    Curiosity, which launched to the Red Planet almost exactly 10 years ago on November 26, 2011, took the pictures from its most recent perch on the side of MarsMount Sharp.

    It captures a 360-degree view of its surroundings with its black-and-white navigation cameras each time it completes a drive, before beaming back the panorama to Earth.

    So inspired were the mission team by the beauty of the landscape, they combined two versions of the black-and-white images from different times of the day and added colours to create a rare postcard, NASA喷气推进实验室 (JPL) 说过.

    希望你在这! NASA's Curiosity rover has marked the 10th anniversary of its launch to Mars by sending back a spectacular 'picture postcard' from the Red Planet (图为)

    希望你在这! NASA’s Curiosity rover has marked the 10th anniversary of its launch to Mars by sending back a spectacular ‘picture postcardfrom the Red Planet (图为)

    The robotic explorer snapped two black and white images of the Martian landscape which were then combined and had colour added to them to produce the remarkable composite

    The robotic explorer snapped two black and white images of the Martian landscape which were then combined and had colour added to them to produce the remarkable composite

    Curiosity captures a 360-degree view of its surroundings with its black-and-white navigation cameras each time it completes a drive, before beaming back the panorama to Earth

    Curiosity captures a 360-degree view of its surroundings with its black-and-white navigation cameras each time it completes a drive, before beaming back the panorama to Earth

    HOW THE CURIOSITY ROVER HAS IMPROVED OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE RED PLANET

    好奇号火星探测器最初是从卡纳维拉尔角发射的, 11 月,佛罗里达州的一个美国空军基地 26, 2011.

    开始了一个 350 百万英里 (560 万公里) 旅行, 18 亿英镑 ($2.5 十亿) 研究车只着陆 1.5 英里 (2.4 公里) 远离指定着陆点.

    8月6日成功登陆后, 2012, 漫游车已经旅行了大约 11 英里 (18 公里).

    It launched on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) 航天器和漫游车构成 23 占整个任务质量的百分比.

    用 80 公斤 (180 磅) 船上的科学仪器, 漫游车的总重量为 899 公斤 (1,982 磅) 并由钚燃料源提供动力.

    漫游车是 2.9 米 (9.5 英尺) 好久不见 2.7 米 (8.9 英尺) 宽广 2.2 米 (7.2 英尺) 身高.

    火星车最初的目的是进行为期两年的任务,以收集信息以帮助回答地球是否可以支持生命存在, 有液态水, 研究火星的气候和地质.

    由于它的成功, 任务已无限期延长,现在已活跃超过 3,000 天.

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    在声明中, 团队说: ‘Many of the rover’s most stunning panoramas are from the color Mastcam instrument, which has far higher resolution than the navigation cameras.

    ‘That’s why the team added colors of their own to this latest image.

    ‘The blue, orange, and green tints are not what the human eye would see; 代替, they represent the scene as viewed at different times of day.

    Curiosity took the images at two different times on November 16: the first at 8:30 and the second at 16:10 local Mars time.

    This provided contrasting lighting conditions that brought out a variety of landscape details, JPL said.

    The team then combined the two scenes in an artistic re-creation that includes elements from the morning scene in blue, the afternoon scene in orange, and a combination of both in green.

    At the centre of the image is the view back down Mount Sharp, or Aeolis Mons, a mountain that forms the central peak of Gale Crater.

    Curiosity has been driving up the three mile (5公里) tall mountain since 2014.

    Rounded hills can be seen in the distance at centre-right and a field of sand ripples known as the ‘Sands of Forviestretches a quarter to a half-mile (400 to 800m) 远.

    At the far right of the panorama is the craggy ‘Rafael Navarro Mountain,’ named after a Curiosity team scientist who died earlier this year.

    Poking up behind it is the upper part of Mount Sharp, far above the area Curiosity is exploring.

    Mount Sharp lies inside Gale Crater, 一种 96 英里 (154公里) wide basin formed by an ancient impact.

    Gale Crater’s distant rim stands 7,500ft tall (2.3公里), and is visible on the horizon about 18 至 25 几英里以外 (30 to 40km).

    The Curiosity mission is led by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which is managed by Caltech in Pasadena, 加利福尼亚州.

    It is not the newest rover on Mars — that honour belongs to Perseverance, which arrived with NASA’s Ingenuity helicopter in February this year and is searching for ancient microbial life on the Red Planet.

    上个星期 Perseverance collected its third Martian sample, this time from a rock ‘loaded with the greenish mineral olivine’.

    The rover carries 43 titanium tubes, and as it finds a piece of rock of interest, it loads the sample into one of these tubes for later collection.

    Billions of years ago, back to the earliest days of the solar system, the Jezero crater that Perseverance is scouting harboured a lake and river delta, making it a good place to search for signs of ‘life’.

    NASA plans a mission to bring around 30 samples back to Earth in the 2030s, where scientists will be able to conduct more detailed analysis that might confirm there was microbial life.

    然而, Perseverance itself is not bringing the samples back to Earth — when the rover reaches a suitable location, 这些管子将掉落在火星表面,以备将来的回收任务收集, 目前正在开发中.

    Curiosity (图为), which launched to Mars almost exactly 10 years ago on November 26, 2011, took the pictures from its most recent perch on the side of the Red Planet's Mount Sharp

    Curiosity (图为), which launched to Mars almost exactly 10 years ago on November 26, 2011, took the pictures from its most recent perch on the side of the Red Planet’s Mount Sharp

    Once Perseverance collects samples from Mars, it will drop them at a suitable location on the surface of Mars to be collected by a future retrieval mission, currently being developed.

    NASA and ESA plan to launch two more spacecraft that would leave Earth in 2026 and reach Mars in 2028.

    The first will deploy a small rover, which will make its way to Perseverance, pick up the filled sampling tubes and transfer them to a ‘Mars ascent vehicle— a small rocket.

    This rocket will blast off – in the process becoming the first object launched from the surface of Mars – and place the container into Martian orbit, meaning it will essentially be floating in space.

    这一点, the third and final spacecraft involved in the tricky operation will manoeuvre itself next to the sample container, pick it up and fly it back to Earth.

    Providing its re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere is successful, it will plummet to the ground at a military training ground in Utah in 2031, meaning the Martian samples won’t be studied for another 10 年份.

    科学家有什么证据证明火星上有生命?

    数十年来,在其他星球上寻找生命的过程一直吸引着人类.

    但现实可能有点不像好莱坞大片, 科学家揭示了.

    They say if there was life on the red planet, it probably will present itself as fossilized bacteriaand have proposed a new way to look for it.

    Here are the most promising signs of life so far

    Water

    在火星上寻找生命时, experts agree that water is key.

    Although the planet is now rocky and barren with water locked up in polar ice caps there could have been water in the past.

    在 2000, scientists first spotted evidence for the existence of water on Mars.

    The Nasa Mars Global Surveyor found gullies that could have been created by flowing water.

    The debate is ongoing as to whether these recurring slope lineae (RSL) could have been formed from water flow.

    Meteorites

    Earth has been hit by 34 meteorites from Mars, three of which are believed to have the potential to carry evidence of past life on the planet, 写 Space.com.

    在 1996, experts found a meteorite in Antarctica known as ALH 84001 that contained fossilised bacteria-like formations.

    然而, 在 2012, experts concluded that this organic material had been formed by volcanic activity without the involvement of life.

    Signs of Life

    The first close-ups of the planet were taken by the 1964 Mariner 4 使命.

    These initial images showed that Mars has landforms that could have been formed when the climate was much wetter and therefore home to life.

    在 1975, the first Viking orbiter was launched and although inconclusive it paved the way for other landers.

    Many rovers, orbiters and landers have now revealed evidence of water beneath the crust and even occasional precipitation.

    今年早些时候, Nasa’s Curiosity rover found potential building blocks of life in an ancient Martian lakebed.

    The organic molecules preserved in 3.5 billion-year-old bedrock in Gale Crater — believed to have once contained a shallow lake the size of Florida’s Lake Okeechobee — suggest conditions back then may have been conducive to life.

    Future missions to Mars plan on bringing samples back to Earth to test them more thoroughly.

    Methane

    在 2018, 好奇号还证实了火星大气中甲烷的季节性急剧增加.

    专家表示,甲烷观测提供了“最引人注目的观测之一”’ 日常生活案例.

    Curiosity’s methane measurements occurred over four-and-a-half Earth years, covering parts of three Martian years.

    Seasonal peaks were detected in late summer in the northern hemisphere and late winter in the southern hemisphere.

    The magnitude of these seasonal peaks – by a factor of three – was far more than scientists expected.

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