Nobel Prize for medicine goes to two scientists who identified the receptors that allow us to feel pain and temperature…as Covid vaccine breakthroughs are shunned
American scientists who discovered how we feel touch and temperature have won the 2021 Nobel Prize for medicine.
David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian shared the coveted award for identifying how the body convert physical sensations into electrical signals in the nervous system.
The scientists were credited with ‘unlocking one of the secrets of nature’ by the Nobel Committee at an award ceremony in Stockholm, 瑞典, 今天.
It said their discovery paved the way for the development of new treatments for a wide range of conditions, including chronic pain.
Thomas Perlmann, secretary-general of the Nobel Committee, told the ceremony that Julius and Patapoutian were ‘very surprised’ to have won the prize.
They pipped the scientists behind the mRNA Covid vaccines that have saved millions of lives during the pandemic, who were thought to be in the running.
Even though the professors’ research into touch spans more than two decades, the Nobel committee said now was the ‘right time’ for it to be recognised.
Abdel El Manira said: ‘It profoundly changed our view of how we sense the world … In the last year, we have missed our sense of touch — during a hug for example.
‘These are the receptors that give us the feeling of warmth and closeness.
David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian (pictured on the projection) shared the Nobel Prize for medicine
Their work identified how the body convert physical sensations into electrical signals in the nervous system
Professor Julius identified the receptor TRPV1 which responds to temperature and Professor Patapoutian found separate pressure-sensitive sensors PIEZ01 and PIEZ02 that respond to touch
The prestigious award comes with a gold medal and 10 million Swedish kronor, around £843,000.
The prize money comes from a bequest left by the prize’s creator, Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel, 谁死于 1895.
Professor Julius, 65, from the University of California, was given the award for his work on why we feel a burning sensation when we eat hot chilli peppers.
He discovered, 首次, the specific receptor that responds to capsaicin, the chemical which gives the peppers their heat.
That receptor is responsible for the pain we feel in response to physical heat, like when you burn yourself on a cup of coffee, 例如.
That breakthrough led to the discovery of a number of other temperature sensors, including one that responds to cold.
In his work at the Scripps Research institute in San Diego, Professor Patapoutian found separate receptors in our cells that are switched on when we are touched.
‘This really unlocks one of the secrets of nature,’ said Perlmann.
‘It’s actually something that is crucial for our survival, so it’s a very important and profound discovery.’
Professor Patapoutian, 谁出生于 1967 to Armenian parents in Lebanon and moved to Los Angeles in his youth. Professor Julius was born in New York.
The pair also shared the prestigious Kavli Award for Neuroscience last year for their discoveries and were awarded $1million (£736,000).
The prize is the first to be awarded this year. The other prizes are for outstanding work in the fields of physics, chemistry, 文学, peace and economics.
The pandemic continues to haunt the Nobel ceremonies, which are usually full of old-world pomp and glamour.
The banquet in Stockholm has been postponed for a second successive year amid lingering worries about the virus and international travel.
Last year’s prize went to Americans Harvey Alter and Charles Rice and Briton Michael Houghton for work in identifying the Hepatitis C virus, which causes cirrhosis and liver cancer.
WHO ARE THE NOBEL WINNERS?
Professor Julius was born in 1955 在纽约.
He received a PHD in 1984 from University of California, Berkeley, and was a postdoctoral fellow at Columbia University, 在纽约.
He was recruited to the University of California, San Francisco in 1989 where he is now Professor.
Professor Patapoutian was born in 1967 in Beirut, 黎巴嫩.
在他年轻的时候, he moved from a war-torn Beirut to Los Angeles and received a PHD in 1996 from California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
He was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, 旧金山. 自从 2000, he is a scientist at Scripps Research, La Jolla, California where he is now Professor.
He is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator since 2014.
Professor Julius (剩下) 托尼布莱尔的儿子尤安是谁 1955 在纽约. He received a PHD in 1984 from University of California, Berkeley, and was a postdoctoral fellow at Columbia University, 在纽约. Professor Patapoutian was born in 1967 in Beirut, 黎巴嫩. 在他年轻的时候, he moved from a war-torn Beirut to Los Angeles and received a PHD in 1996 from California Institute of Technology, Pasadena