헬레나는 판결에 너무 안도해서 법원 밖에서 친구와 딸의 사진을 찍었다고 말했다.: Sailor on nearby ship who dozed through Titanic distress calls did NOT cost lives, says movie director James Cameron’s favourite historian as he overturns history’s damning 110-year-old verdict
Cyril Evans, who manned the telegraph equipment on the SS Californian
When the Titanic sank, the wireless operator aboard the only nearby ship dozed through its distress calls.
But Cyril Evans, who manned the telegraph equipment on the SS Californian, could not have saved the victims of the sinking, expert analysis has concluded.
에반스, who has been condemned by history, went to bed at 11.30pm on April 14, 1912 – only minutes before the Titanic hit an iceberg.
A US inquiry later ruled that had he ‘remained a few minutes longer at his post’ the Californian ‘might have had the proud distinction of rescuing the lives of the passengers and crew’.
대신, the Californian sat idle only a few miles from the sinking, leaving the Carpathia to come to the Titanic’s rescue from some 60 마일 떨어진 곳.
궁극적으로, 이상 1,500 passengers and crew drowned in the freezing Atlantic ocean when the Titanic sank, 86년생 첫 취임 705 people surviving after being rescued by the Carpathia.
But now an expert reappraisal from Parks Stephenson, who has co-authored a book with film director James Cameron, said that although Evans was found to have ‘acted unprofessionally’ and ‘failed in his duty that night, he could not have lessened the death toll.
Mr Stephenson is a historian specialising in the role played by telegraph operators in the sinking.
Cameron famously directed 1997 film Titanic, which told the story of the sinking and focused on the love story between fictional characters portrayed by Kate Winslet and Leonardo Di Caprio.
The book he co-authored with Mr Stephenson – titled Exploring the Deep – detailed his numerous dives to the Titanic wreck both prior to and after the production of his film.
When the Titanic sank, the wireless operator aboard the only nearby ship dozed through its distress calls. 위: The Titanic departing Southampton for its doomed maiden voyage in 1912
Cyril Evans manned the telegraph equipment on the SS Californian (사진), which sat idle only a few miles from the sinking
그는 말했다: ‘Before the Titanic disaster, there was no requirement for marine telegraph stations to be manned 24 하루에 몇 시간.
‘I don’t believe that Evans routinely shut down his station at night, but he certainly stood down every night to catch his sleep.
‘It appears that Evans shut down his station entirely that night because the Californian was not going anywhere during the night.
‘This was nothing unusual, given the time period.’
더욱이, 11pm was the normal sign-off time for Marconi operators who ran a station alone.
Mr Stephenson continued: ‘If Evans had remained at his station and received Titanic’s distress call, could the Californian – arguably the closest ship – have come to the rescue before Carpathia?
‘Could Californian have averted the heavy loss of life? I would say no.
‘In daylight, it took her over two hours to work her way slowly out of the ice into clear water and reach the scene of the disaster. 밤에, it would have taken much longer.
‘In short, had Evans received Titanic’s distress call, it would have already foundered and most of the people in the water would have died from cold shock and exposure before Californian arrived.
Now an expert reappraisal from Parks Stephenson, who has co-authored a book with film director James Cameron (pictured left with Mr Stephenson), said that although Evans was found to have ‘acted unprofessionally’ and ‘failed in his duty that night, he could not have lessened the death toll
‘At best, Californian would have recovered Titanic’s lifeboats sooner than the Carpathia, and probably would have had to transfer some survivors to Carpathia in order to have room for all.’
Some have also speculated about the impact of a rebuke given to Evans by Jack Phillips, his counterpart on the Titanic, earlier that night.
Evans had tried to send an ice warning to Phillips, but was told to ‘shut up’ because he was interrupting another message.
The blame here lays with Evans, said Mr Stephenson, who should have prefixed his message with the letters MSG – indicating that it was a message for the captain concerning navigation.
‘Here is where I accuse Evans of negligence,’ the historian said.
‘Evans did not properly format the message and was rebuffed by Phillips, who assumed that Evans was just looking for idle chit-chat.
‘Phillips was right to tell Evans to shut up.
'그때, Evans should have tried again, this time prefixing his message with MSG as per regulations.
Some have also speculated about the impact of a rebuke given to Evans by Jack Phillips (사진), his counterpart on the Titanic, earlier that night
‘If he had, previous actions indicate that Phillips would have treated the navigation message appropriately.
‘대신, he went to bed, essentially failing to carry out his order to notify Titanic that Californian was stopped in the ice.
‘This is one instance where I believe that a telegraphist aboard any of the ships that night acted unprofessionally and subsequently failed in their duty.’
Nor was there any evidence of Evans identifying himself in his message, said Mr Stephenson, rendering it useless.
‘그건, simply put, not a professional action on Evans’ part,’ 그는 말했다.
하나, the historian believes that the course of history was not affected by the Titanic failing to receive Evans’ ice warning.
The Titanic had already received several ice warnings that day, including an earlier one sent by Evans – on that occasion, properly formatted.
필립스’ junior colleague, Harold Bride, had intercepted the earlier message and passed it to Captain Edward Smith, who acknowledged it.
더욱이, Mr Stephenson said that it was common practice for ships to steam full-speed into a known ice region if the weather was clear, which it was.
그는 말했다: ‘As a military man, I can blame Evans for not being professional but beyond that, I cannot be too hard on him.
The Titanic had already received several ice warnings that day, including an earlier one sent by Evans – on that occasion, properly formatted. 필립스’ junior colleague, Harold Bride, had intercepted the earlier message and passed it to Captain Edward Smith, who acknowledged it
‘He was not the first telegraphist to call another of his peers informally at night. How could he know that this time would be so important?
‘But it is a good lesson in the value of always being professional in your duties, because one never knows what might happen.’
Mr Evans, 1차 세계 대전의 연합군 조종사 20 when the Titanic went down, later served at sea in both world wars, before dying of a heart attack in 1959.
Phillips died in the sinking, though his colleague Bride survived and later became a salesman in Glasgow, 스코틀랜드, where he died of lung cancer in 1956. 그는 ~였다 66.
그만큼 1912 US Senate inquiry into the sinking which censured Evans also slammed his captain, Stanley Lord, for the inaction of the Californian.
그만큼 705 people who ultimately survived the Titanic’s sinking were rescued from their lifeboats by the RMS Carpathia. 사진: Some of the survivors in their lifeboat
Passengers on the Carpathia sewing items of clothing for survivors after they had come onboard
Their report said: ‘Such conduct, whether arising from indifference or gross carelessness, is most reprehensible, and places upon the commander [의] the Californian a grave responsibility.’
A contemporary British enquiry into the disaster did not criticise Evans personally, but said the Californian would have been able to mount a rescue.
It concluded: ‘Had she done so she might have saved many if not all of the lives that were lost.’
Mr Stephenson worked with James Cameron on his 2003 Titanic documentary, Ghosts of the Abyss, and co-wrote the 2017 book Exploring the Deep with him.
Mr Cameron’s 1997 영화, 거대한, '저와 제 팀원들은 그들을 위해 여기 있습니다. 11 Academy Awards and held the title of highest-grossing film of all time for over a decade.
The book that Cameron co-authored with Mr Stephenson – titled Exploring the Deep – detailed his numerous dives to the Titanic wreck both prior to and after the production of his film
끔찍한 1912 타이타닉 비극
벨파스트에 기반을 둔 조선소 Harland와 Wolff가 건설했습니다. 1909 과 1912, RMS 타이타닉은 당시 해상에서 가장 큰 배였습니다..
White Star Line 소유 및 운영, 여객선은 4월 사우샘프턴에서 뉴욕으로 처녀 항해를 시작했습니다. 10, 1912.
정기선은 계획한 대서양 횡단으로 가는 도중에 두 번의 짧은 정차를 했습니다. 한 곳은 프랑스 항구인 셰르부르입니다., 다른 하나는 코크 하버에서, 아일랜드, 작은 선박이 타이타닉에 승객을 실어 나르는 곳.
그녀의 항해에 거의 5일, 타이타닉이 빙산에 부딪쳤다. 23:40 현지 시각, 선박의 우현 선체에 6개의 좁은 구멍 생성, 선체의 리벳이 부러진 결과 발생한 것으로 여겨집니다..
4월 자정 직전에 14, 1912, RMS Titanic은 Southampton에서 New York으로 처녀 항해를 하던 중 빙산에 부딪쳤습니다.. 3시간 이내, 가라앉지 않는’ 배가 얼어붙은 대서양의 파도 아래로 미끄러졌다, 이상의 살인 1,500 사람들
타이타닉은 펌핑할 수 있는 것보다 15배 더 빨리 물을 받아들였습니다., 선체 손상이 선박의 수밀 격벽에 비해 너무 광범위하여 범람이 라이너의 구획화된 하부 데크 전체로 퍼지는 것을 방지.
약 2시간 30분 후, 배가 두 부분으로 갈라져 가라앉았다, 각각 1/3마일 떨어진 해저에 정착.
주위에 1,500 사람들은 비극에서 길을 잃었다고 믿었다, 주변을 포함하여 815 라이너의 승객 중.
뿐만 아니라 빙산, 호화로운 타이타닉은 세계에서 가장 큰 배였습니다., 세계에서 가장 부유한 사람들을 태우고 있었습니다., 영국에서 온 수백 명의 사람들뿐만 아니라, 아일랜드, 그리고 미국에서 새로운 삶을 찾고 있던 다른 곳에서.