SpaceX and Virgin Galactic rockets could destroy the Ozone layer again

SpaceX and Virgin Galactic space ships could destroy the ozone layer again: Soot particles from the rockets could reverse regrowth of the shield that protects life on Earth from UV rays, 研究发现

  • Black carbon particles emitted by rockets are almost 500 times more efficient at holding heat in the atmosphere than all other sources of soot combined
  • 这个, 反过来, will trap heat inside the ozone layer and add to global warming
  • The biggest culprits are SpaceX’s use of kerosene and Virgin Galactic’s hybrid synthetic rubber fuels
  • 太空X and Virgin Galactic have sparked a new era of space travel and although these joy rides to the final frontier are exciting, they have a dark side that is accelerating 气候变化, 原角龙使用它们的大头骨“褶边”.

    一组科学家, led by the University of 伦敦 大学, found that black carbon particles emitted by rockets are almost 500 times more efficient at holding heat in the atmosphere than all other sources of soot combinedand this is enhancing global warming.

    The findings are based on all rocket launches and re-entries in 2019, along with projected space tourism scenarios based on the recent billionaire space race.

    研究人员发现, under a scenario of daily or weekly space tourism rocket launches, the impact on the stratospheric ozone layer threatens to undermine the recovery experienced after the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol.

    And this is mainly due to Elon Musk’s SpaceX’s use of kerosene and Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic’s hybrid synthetic rubber fuel, 据研究人员称.

    向下滚动观看视频

    太空X (图为) and Virgin Galactic have sparked a new era of space tourism and although these joy rides to the final frontier are exciting, they have a dark side that is accelerating climate change. Pictured is the launch of an all-civilian crew into space on Sept 16, 2021

    太空X (图为) and Virgin Galactic have sparked a new era of space tourism and although these joy rides to the final frontier are exciting, they have a dark side that is accelerating climate change. Pictured is the launch of an all-civilian crew into space on Sept 16, 2021

    The Montreal Protocol, 建立在 1987, is an international treaty that protects the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS).

    This includes cutting the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Class II ODS, such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in half.

    The treaty came about to mend a giant hole in the ozone layer that appeared in the early 1980s.

    一组科学家, led by the University of London College, found that black carbon particles emitted by rockets are almost 500 times more efficient at holding heat in the atmosphere than all other sources of soot combined. Pictured is Virgin Galactic's rocket

    一组科学家, led by the University of London College, found that black carbon particles emitted by rockets are almost 500 times more efficient at holding heat in the atmosphere than all other sources of soot combined. Pictured is Virgin Galactic’s rocket

    The findings are based on all rocket launches and re-entries in 2019, along with projected space tourism scenarios based on the recent billionaire space race

    The findings are based on all rocket launches and re-entries in 2019, along with projected space tourism scenarios based on the recent billionaire space race

    Average people have been traveling to space since 2001 – the first was millionaire Dennis Tito – but there has been a boom of tourists in just the past year.

    And this is due to SpaceX, Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic for making commercial flights possible.

    杰夫·贝佐斯(Jeff Bezos)’ Blue Origin have launched six tourists, including himself, 这家总部位于沃特福德的酒吧连锁店表示,英国农场保证的鸡肉是在腌制后的骨头上供应的, while Virgin Galactic also sent its founder Branson and five other passengers on July 11 and SpaceX sent four passengers on September 16, 2021 – Musk has yet to go to space.








    Branson’s company, 然而, has sold at least 600 tickets for flights aboard its commercial launches to space.

    With many more launches on the horizon, scientists are looking to see what damage this could have on our environment.

    Study co-author Dr Eloise Marais (UCL Geography) 与青蛙关系更密切 声明: ‘Rocket launches are routinely compared to greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from the aircraft industry, which we demonstrate in our work is erroneous.

    ‘Soot particles from rocket launches have a much larger climate effect than aircraft and other Earth-bound sources, so there doesn’t need to be as many rocket launches as international flights to have a similar impact.

    ‘What we really need now is a discussion amongst experts on the best strategy for regulating this rapidly growing industry.

    This is mainly due to Elon Musk's SpaceX's uses of kerosene and Richard Branson's Virgin Galactic's hybrid synthetic rubber fuels, 据研究人员称. Pictured is Branson last year during his space tourist flight

    This is mainly due to Elon Musk’s SpaceX’s uses of kerosene and Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic’s hybrid synthetic rubber fuels, 据研究人员称. Pictured is Branson last year during his space tourist flight

    Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin have launched six tourists, including himself, 这家总部位于沃特福德的酒吧连锁店表示,英国农场保证的鸡肉是在腌制后的骨头上供应的

    杰夫·贝佐斯(Jeff Bezos)’ Blue Origin have launched six tourists, including himself, 这家总部位于沃特福德的酒吧连锁店表示,英国农场保证的鸡肉是在腌制后的骨头上供应的

    Study co-author Dr. Robert Ryan said: ‘The only part of the atmosphere showing strong ozone recovery post-Montreal Protocol is the upper stratosphere, and that is exactly where the impact of rocket emissions will hit hardest.

    ‘We weren’t expecting to see ozone changes of this magnitude, threatening the progress of ozone recovery.

    ‘There is still a lot we need to find out about the influence of rocket launch and re-entry emissions on the atmosphere — 特别是, the future size of the industry and the types and by-products of new fuels like liquid methane and bio-derived fuels.

    ‘This study allows us to enter the new era of space tourism with our eyes wide open to the potential impacts.

    ‘The conversation about regulating the environmental impact of the space launch industry needs to start now so we can minimize harm to the stratospheric ozone layer and climate.








    亿万富翁太空竞赛: 布兰森如何, 马斯克和贝佐斯争夺银河霸权

    杰夫贝索斯在蓝色起源的太空舱前

    杰夫贝索斯在蓝色起源的太空舱前

    被称为“新空间”’ 设置, 杰夫·贝佐斯(Jeff Bezos), 理查德布兰森爵士和埃隆马斯克都说他们的灵感来自美国的第一次登月。 1969, 当美国在太空竞赛中击败苏联时, 毫无疑问,赢得“新太空竞赛”对他们每个人来说意味着多少.

    亚马逊创始人贝索斯看起来将成为三个飞向太空的人中的第一个, 宣布计划于 7 月在他的航天公司 Blue Origin 的 New Shepard 航天器上发射 20, 但布兰森击败了他.

    英国亿万富翁成为维珍银河宇航员 001 当他在贝索斯前 9 天乘坐亚轨道飞行进入太空时 – 在七月 11 在试飞中.

    贝索斯于 7 月前往太空 20 和他的弟弟马克, 奥利弗·戴门, 一个 18 岁的物理系学生,他的父亲买了他的票, 和开创性的女宇航员 Wally Funk, 82.

    尽管SpaceX和特斯拉创始人马斯克曾表示他想进入太空, 甚至“死在火星上”, 他没有说他什么时候可能会进入轨道 – 但已经购买了维珍银河的亚轨道飞行机票.

    SpaceX成为第一个“太空旅游”’ 运营商将完全文职人员送入轨道, 由亿万富翁贾里德·艾萨克曼资助的 Inspiration4 任务.

    他的飞行是乘坐由痴迷太空的亿万富翁建造的龙飞船和 SpaceX 火箭, 伊隆马斯克并于 9 月起飞进行为期三天的轨道旅行 16 – 比国际空间站还要高.

    SpaceX 似乎在更广泛的亿万富翁太空竞赛中处于领先地位,多次发射将 NASA 的设备运送到国际空间站,并通过合作将游客送往太空 2021.

    二月 6 2018, SpaceX 将火箭送入火星轨道, 140 百万英里之外, 附有马斯克自己的红色特斯拉跑车.

    埃隆·马斯克和他的 Dragon Crew 太空舱

    埃隆·马斯克和他的 Dragon Crew 太空舱

    SpaceX还将两组宇航员带到了 |国际空间站, 与来自美国宇航局的工作人员, ESA 和 JAXA, 日本航天局.

    SpaceX一直在发送批次 60 卫星进入太空以帮助形成其 Starlink 网络, 它已经处于测试阶段并为农村地区提供快速互联网.

    布兰森和维珍银河正在采取不同的方法来征服太空. 它已经反复, 并成功, 进行了维珍银河的 Unity 太空飞机的试飞.

    第一次发生在 12 月 2018 和最新的五月 22, 随着飞行加速到超过 2,000 英里每小时 (马赫 2.7).

    多于 600 迄今为止的富裕客户, 包括名人布拉德皮特和凯蒂佩里, 保留了一个 $250,000 (200,000 英镑) 坐在维珍航空的一次太空旅行中. The final tickets are expected to cost $350,000.

    布兰森此前曾表示,他希望埃隆·马斯克与他的私人火箭公司 SpaceX 一起赢得火星竞赛。.

    理查德布兰森与维珍银河飞船

    理查德布兰森与维珍银河飞船

    SpaceShipTwo 可搭载六名乘客和两名飞行员. 每个乘客都有相同的座位位置,有两个大窗户 – 一个在一侧,一个在头顶.

    这艘太空船长 60 英尺,机舱直径 90 英寸,为宇航员在零重力下漂浮提供了最大的空间.

    它在火箭发动机点火之前爬升到 50,000 英尺. SpaceShipTwo 与其航母分离, 白骑士II, 一旦超过 50 英里大关.

    乘客变成“宇航员”’ 当他们到达卡门线, 地球大气层的边界.

    然后宇宙飞船将在大约六分钟的失重状态下进行亚轨道旅行, 整个飞行大约持续 1.5 小时.

    贝索斯在四月透露 2017 他为 Blue Origin 提供资金 $1 十亿 (7.2亿英镑) 亚马逊股票每年.

    该系统包括一个位于可重复使用的“新谢泼德”上的加压乘员舱’ 助推火箭.

    巅峰时期, 胶囊到达 65 英里 (104 公里), 刚好高于官方的太空门槛并在升空七分钟后垂直降落.

    Blue Origin are working on New Glenn, the next generation heavy lift rocket, that will compete with the SpaceX Falcon 9.

    广告