Stonehenge 4,500-year-old pits are man-made, reveal scientists

Stonehenge pits ARE man-made: 16ft craters near Neolithic site that experts wrote-as naturally-occurring ‘blobsare confirmed as 4,500-year-old holes dug by ancient Britons after scientists use underground mapping technology

  • Pits, which are around 30 feet across and 16 piedi in profondità, were found in June 2020
  • They were arranged in a circle shape around the Durrington Walls Henge
  • It is two miles from the more famous Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire
  • A series of deep pits which were discovered near Stonehenge last year have been confirmed as having been made by ancient Britonsafter some experts dismissed them as mere natural features.

    Il 20 pits, which are more than 30 feet across and 16 piedi in profondità, were found in June 2020 by a team of archaeologists.

    They were arranged in a circle shape around the Durrington Walls Henge, which is just two miles from its more famous man-made neighbour on Salisbury Plain, nel Wiltshire.

    Initial data had suggested that the features dated from the Neolithic period and had been excavated by humans around 4,500 anni fa – around the time that the Durrington Walls were built.

    Soon after the discovery, one archaeologist called the pits ‘blobs on the groundwhilst another said they were not man-made, adding they could be ‘trusted to recognise a natural feature when they encounter one’.

    Ma ora, scientists have confirmed that the pits were definitely made by early Britons.

    An incredible 3D map produced with special technology that can search below ground and is revealed in the Channel 5 documentary Stonehenge: The New Revelations shows the extent of the pits.

    A series of deep pits which were discovered near Stonehenge (nella foto) last year have been confirmed as having been made by ancient Britons - after some experts dismissed them as mere natural features

    A series of deep pits which were discovered near Stonehenge (nella foto) last year have been confirmed as having been made by ancient Britonsafter some experts dismissed them as mere natural features

    Il 20 pits, which are more than 30 feet across and 16 piedi in profondità, were found in June 2020 by a team of archaeologists. Adesso, scientists have confirmed that the pits were definitely made by early Britons. Sopra: An incredible 3D map produced with special technology that can search below ground and is revealed in the Channel 5 documentary Stonehenge: The New Revelations shows the extent of the pits

    Il 20 pits, which are more than 30 feet across and 16 piedi in profondità, were found in June 2020 by a team of archaeologists. Adesso, scientists have confirmed that the pits were definitely made by early Britons. Sopra: An incredible 3D map produced with special technology that can search below ground and is revealed in the Channel 5 documentary Stonehenge: The New Revelations shows the extent of the pits

    Another CGI image gives viewers a chance to see the pits how they might have looked when being used by ancient Britons.

    Bradford University’s Professor Vincent Gaffney, who lead the team which made the discovery, said science had proven that the pits make up a huge Neolithic monument.

    He added in Il guardiano: ‘Some of the debate about the discovery and Stonehenge seemed bonkers to me.

    Professor Gaffney said that his team had now looked at ‘nearly halfof the pits and have found that they are ‘all the same.

    ‘So effectively this really does say this is one enormous structure. It may have evolved from a natural feature, but we haven’t located that,’ Ha aggiunto.

    ‘So it’s the largest prehistoric structure found in Britain.

    The underground ring is around 20 times bigger than Stonehenge. It is said to add to evidence that early Britons had worked out a way to measure distancebecause the pits are spaced evenly apart.

    Another CGI image gives viewers a chance to see the pits how they might have looked when being used by ancient Britons

    Another CGI image gives viewers a chance to see the pits how they might have looked when being used by ancient Britons

    Whilst it is unclear why the pits were dug, they may have had a cosmological significance.

    Archaeologists involved in the new research used special remote sensing technology that can map beneath the ground to uncover the extent of the pits.

    The experts are able to detect where the ground has been disturbed, even if it happened thousands of years ago.

    Their research also involved the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), which can date the last time that sediment was exposed to light.

    Dr Tim Kinnaird, of the school of earth and environmental sciences at the University of St Andrews, said the tests proved ‘beyond doubtthat the pits date to around 2400BC.

    An image of the location of the pits in relation to Stonehenge. The original discovery of the pits was made as part of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project, led by the University of Bradford

    An image of the location of the pits in relation to Stonehenge. The original discovery of the pits was made as part of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project, led by the University of Bradford

    Coring of the shafts suggest the features are Neolithic and excavated more than 4,500 anni fa - around the time Durrington Walls was built

    Coring of the shafts suggest the features are Neolithic and excavated more than 4,500 anni fa – around the time Durrington Walls was built

    The original discovery of the pits was made as part of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project, led by the University of Bradford.

    Experts from the University of St Andrews also joined along with counterparts from institutes including Birmingham, Warwick, the University of Wales Trinity Saint David and the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (at the University of Glasgow).

    Professor Gaffney said last year: ‘The area around Stonehenge is amongst the most studied archaeological landscapes on earth.

    ‘It is remarkable that the application of new technology can still lead to the discovery of such a massive prehistoric structure.

    Dr Richard Bates, of the university’s School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, disse: ‘Yet again, the use of a multidisciplinary effort with remote sensing and careful sampling is giving us an insight to the past that shows an even more complex society than we could ever imagine.

    It is thought the shafts served as a boundary to a sacred area or precinct associated with the henge. Map pictured above

    It is thought the shafts served as a boundary to a sacred area or precinct associated with the henge. Map pictured above

    ‘Clearly sophisticated practices demonstrate that the people were so in tune with natural events to an extent that we can barely conceive in the modern world we live in today.

    Dr Nick Snashall, National Trust archaeologist for the Stonehenge and Avebury World Heritage Site, last year hailed the ‘astonishing discovery’.

    Egli ha detto: ‘As the place where the builders of Stonehenge lived and feasted Durrington Walls is key to unlocking the story of the wider Stonehenge landscape, and this astonishing discovery offers us new insights into the lives and beliefs of our Neolithic ancestors.

    ‘The Hidden Landscapes team have combined cutting-edge, archaeological fieldwork with good old-fashioned detective work to reveal this extraordinary discovery and write a whole new chapter in the story of the Stonehenge landscape.

    Stonehenge: The New Revelations, airs on December 9 at 9pm on Channel 5.

    Il monumento di Stonehenge in piedi oggi è stata la fase finale di un progetto di costruzione in quattro parti che si è concluso 3,500 anni fa

    Stonehenge è uno dei monumenti preistorici più importanti della Gran Bretagna. La Stonehenge che si può vedere oggi è l'ultima tappa che è stata completata circa 3,500 anni fa.

    Secondo il sito web del monumento, Stonehenge è stata costruita in quattro fasi:

    Primo stadio: La prima versione di Stonehenge era un grande terrapieno o Henge, comprendente un fossato, banca e le buche di Aubrey, tutto probabilmente costruito intorno 3100 AVANTI CRISTO.

    I fori di Aubrey sono buche rotonde nel gesso, circa un metro (3.3 piedi) ampio e profondo, con sponde ripide e fondo piatto.

    Stonehenge (nella foto) è uno dei monumenti preistorici più importanti della Gran Bretagna

    Stonehenge (nella foto) è uno dei monumenti preistorici più importanti della Gran Bretagna

    Formano un cerchio intorno 86.6 metri (284 piedi) di diametro.

    Gli scavi hanno rivelato ossa umane cremate in parte del riempimento di gesso, ma i fori stessi probabilmente non erano fatti per essere usati come tombe, ma come parte di una cerimonia religiosa.

    Dopo questa prima fase, Stonehenge è stata abbandonata e lasciata intatta per più di 1,000 anni.

    Seconda fase: La seconda e più drammatica tappa di Stonehenge è iniziata intorno 2150 anni aC, quando circa 82 le pietre blu dei monti Preseli nel Galles sudoccidentale sono state trasportate nel sito. Si pensa che le pietre, alcuni dei quali pesano quattro tonnellate ciascuno, sono stati trascinati su rulli e slitte nelle acque di Milford Haven, dove venivano caricati sulle zattere.

    Sono stati trasportati sull'acqua lungo la costa meridionale del Galles e lungo i fiumi Avon e Frome, prima di essere trascinato di nuovo via terra vicino a Warminster e Wiltshire.

    La tappa finale del viaggio è stata principalmente sull'acqua, lungo il fiume Wylye fino a Salisbury, poi il Salisbury Avon ad ovest di Amesbury.

    Il viaggio è durato quasi 240 miglia, e una volta sul sito, le pietre erano disposte al centro per formare un doppio cerchio incompleto.

    Durante lo stesso periodo, l'ingresso originale è stato ampliato e sono state erette un paio di Heel Stones. La parte più vicina del viale, che collega Stonehenge con il fiume Avon, è stato costruito in linea con l'alba di mezza estate.

    Terza fase: La terza tappa di Stonehenge, che ha avuto luogo circa 2000 anni aC, visto l'arrivo delle pietre di sarsen (un tipo di arenaria), che erano più grandi delle pietre blu.

    Probabilmente sono stati portati dai Marlborough Downs (40 chilometri, o 25 miglia, a nord di Stonehenge).

    La più grande delle pietre di sarsen trasportate a Stonehenge pesa 50 tonnellate, e il trasporto via acqua non sarebbe stato possibile, quindi si sospetta che siano stati trasportati con slitte e funi.

    I calcoli hanno dimostrato che ci sarebbe voluto 500 uomini che usano corde di cuoio per tirare una fava, con un extra 100 gli uomini dovevano posare i rulli davanti alla slitta.

    Queste pietre erano disposte in un cerchio esterno con una corsa continua di architravi – supporti orizzontali.

    Dentro il cerchio, cinque triliti – strutture costituite da due pietre verticali e una terza trasversalmente ad architrave – sono stati disposti a ferro di cavallo, che si vede ancora oggi.

    Fase finale: Subito dopo si è svolta la quarta e ultima tappa 1500 anni aC, quando le pietre blu più piccole furono riorganizzate nel ferro di cavallo e nel cerchio che si possono vedere oggi.

    Il numero originale di pietre nel cerchio di pietre blu era probabilmente intorno 60, ma da allora questi sono stati rimossi o rotti. Alcuni rimangono come ceppi sotto il livello del suolo.

    fonte: Stonehenge.co.uk

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